Topic: Literature

文学 - 英语讨论


Tone is the author’s attitude toward the topic.

  • absurd: silly, ridiculous
  • ambivalent: undecided, having mixed emotions, unsure
  • amused: entertained, finding humor, expressed by a smile or laugh
  • angry: enraged, very mad, incensed, threatening or menacing
  • apathetic: lacking concern, showing little or no interest
  • arrogant: haughty, acting with false superiority
  • bitter: resentful, having strong animosity or rancor
  • cheerful: jovial, happy, in good spirits
  • comic: humorous, funny
  • compassionate: sympathetic, having feeling for others, showing pity, empathy
  • complex: complicated, having many varying characteristics
  • condescending(表现出优越感;屈尊,俯就): patronizing, stooping to the level of one’s inferious
  • critical: disapproving
  • cruel: causing suffering, causing pain
  • cynical: scornful of the motives or virtues of others, bitterly mocking 认为人皆自私的,愤世嫉俗的;
  • depressed: dejected, sad, unhappy, troubled
  • detached: uninvolved, having no interest or feelings
  • distressed: upset
  • gothic 哥特式
  • earnest: sincere, showing deep feeling
  • formal
  • gentle
  • hard: unfeeling, hard-hearted, unyielding
  • incredulous: doubtful, disbelieving, skeptical
  • indignant: angry, angered by something unjust, mean
  • intense: deeply felt, concentrated
  • intimate: personal, close, deeply associated
  • ironic: wry, an unexpected opposite meaning in words or events(台下的观众都知道,台上的演员不知道)
  • malicious: 恶意的 spiteful, desiring to harm others or to see or to suffer
  • mocking: ridiculing, imitating
  • nostalgic(思念家乡): yearning for the past, home sick, wistful
  • objective: factual
  • optimistic: positive, believing in positive outcomes
  • outspoken: frank
  • pathetic: pitiful, useless, wretched
  • pessimistic: tending to take the worst possible view of a situation
  • playful: fun-filled, full of good spirits
  • black beauty
  • reticent: reserved, restrained
  • reverent: respectful, showing deep respect and esteem
  • righteous: morally just, morally right, guiltless
  • satiric:讽刺的;挖苦的 ridiculing or attacking by means of irony or caustic wit
  • sentimental: emotional, showing special feeling forli
  • serious: earnest, not funny
  • tragic: disastrous, calamitous
  • uneasy: lacking security, lacking comfort
  • vindictive: revengeful, spiteful, bitter, unforgiving
  • simile 明喻
  • metaphor 暗喻
  • figures of speech 修辞
  • personification 拟人化
  • onomatopoeia 拟声词
  • decorum 端庄的
  • hostile 敌对的
  • hospitable 好客的,欢迎的
  • He uses poetic language 诗一般的语言
  • descriptive metaphors 描述性的隐喻
  • critique v/n 评论,评论文章
  • anti-modern 反现代
  • to awe his readers 以敬畏他的读者
  • genre 类型,风格
  • romance poetry 浪漫诗歌
  • epic 史诗
  • lyric 抒情诗
  • ode 颂歌
  • prose 散文
  • biography 传记
  • autobiography 自传
  • comparative literature 比较文学
  • editorial 社论
  • essay 小论文
  • fiction 小说
  • sci-fi 科幻小说
  • folktale 民间传说 民间故事 (人物和故事都是编造的, pass by oral, purely imaginative)
  • folk legend 民间传说(英雄人物真实的,故事可能是编造的, real history, real people)
  • fairytale 童话
  • anecdote 轶事
  • fable 寓言
  • satire 讽刺
  • plot 情节
  • denouement 结局
  • rhetoric 修辞
  • manual script
  • parchment 羊皮纸
  • cliche 陈词滥调/俗
  • stereotype 刻板印象
  • rhyme 押韵
  • literature review 文献综述
  • internal objective 内部目标
  • stock character 固定角色

To inform:

  • To analyze
  • To clarify
  • To discuss
  • To establish
  • To explain
  • discursive 分析

To entertain:

  • To amuse
  • To delight
  • To frighten

To persuade:

  • To argue against
  • To argue for
  • To convince
  • To criticize
  • To inspire(motivate a change)

Structural Devices

  • dialogue
  • monologue
  • aside
  • Third-person narrative
  • flashbacks 回溯


And Hugo, like other Romantics, was also opposed to the artistic rules that the neoclassicists had inherited from the Enlightenment.


The Romantics wanted a more passionate kind of theater and it was more rooted in the individual and the individual sensibility.


There was an ideological struggle between a lot of young people, artists, people who wanted change, and, and people who didn’t.


neoclassical comedy 新古典主义戏剧

Enlightenment. 启蒙运动


But Thoreau also critiques trains on what we could call philosophical grounds. 哲学层面

cause some friction between A and B 导致一些摩擦(争论,不和)


Children’s Literature

  • social etiquette 社交礼仪

Combine lerning and pleasure, the books should have fun.

Books written to instruct children, delight, entertain chindren.

Locke: Children’s mind are blank, need to be filled, learning by experience.

Key to education is to combine learning and pleasuring.

Naturalistic Novel

Realist: real life of ordinary people, not idealized, not life of hero.

Naturalist: real life + real environment and development, not like a traditional play, which raise a problem, solve it, and had a happy ending. They reflect a view of life that is not always happy.

According to the professor, what was one of Zola’s goals in creating slice-of-life theater? C. To inform his audiences about social issues