Topic: Literature

文学 - 英语讨论

Tone

Tone is the author’s attitude toward the topic.

  • absurd: silly, ridiculous
  • ambivalent: undecided, having mixed emotions, unsure
  • amused: entertained, finding humor, expressed by a smile or laugh
  • angry: enraged, very mad, incensed, threatening or menacing
  • apathetic: lacking concern, showing little or no interest
  • arrogant: haughty, acting with false superiority
  • bitter: resentful, having strong animosity or rancor
  • cheerful: jovial, happy, in good spirits
  • comic: humorous, funny
  • compassionate: sympathetic, having feeling for others, showing pity, empathy
  • complex: complicated, having many varying characteristics
  • condescending(表现出优越感;屈尊,俯就): patronizing, stooping to the level of one’s inferious
  • critical: disapproving
  • cruel: causing suffering, causing pain
  • cynical: scornful of the motives or virtues of others, bitterly mocking 认为人皆自私的,愤世嫉俗的;
  • depressed: dejected, sad, unhappy, troubled
  • detached: uninvolved, having no interest or feelings
  • distressed: upset
  • gothic 哥特式
  • earnest: sincere, showing deep feeling
  • formal
  • gentle
  • hard: unfeeling, hard-hearted, unyielding
  • incredulous: doubtful, disbelieving, skeptical
  • indignant: angry, angered by something unjust, mean
  • intense: deeply felt, concentrated
  • intimate: personal, close, deeply associated
  • ironic: wry, an unexpected opposite meaning in words or events(台下的观众都知道,台上的演员不知道)
  • malicious: 恶意的 spiteful, desiring to harm others or to see or to suffer
  • mocking: ridiculing, imitating
  • nostalgic(思念家乡): yearning for the past, home sick, wistful
  • objective: factual
  • optimistic: positive, believing in positive outcomes
  • outspoken: frank
  • pathetic: pitiful, useless, wretched
  • pessimistic: tending to take the worst possible view of a situation
  • playful: fun-filled, full of good spirits
  • black beauty
  • reticent: reserved, restrained
  • reverent: respectful, showing deep respect and esteem
  • righteous: morally just, morally right, guiltless
  • satiric:讽刺的;挖苦的 ridiculing or attacking by means of irony or caustic wit
  • sentimental: emotional, showing special feeling forli
  • serious: earnest, not funny
  • tragic: disastrous, calamitous
  • uneasy: lacking security, lacking comfort
  • vindictive: revengeful, spiteful, bitter, unforgiving
  • simile 明喻
  • metaphor 暗喻
  • figures of speech 修辞
  • personification 拟人化
  • onomatopoeia 拟声词

To inform:

  • To analyze
  • To clarify
  • To discuss
  • To establish
  • To explain
  • discursive 分析

To entertain:

  • To amuse
  • To delight
  • To frighten

To persuade:

  • To argue against
  • To argue for
  • To convince
  • To criticize
  • To inspire(motivate a change)

Structural Devices

  • dialogue
  • monologue
  • aside
  • Third-person narrative
  • flashbacks 回溯