TOEFL Writing: Academic Discussion

托福写作-学术讨论

How to Score 5/5

  • Good structure (开头两句话, A is indispensable for …. A can help sb. in two ways/ for two reasons;正文一共两段;每一段论述一个点,开头提出论点,写个三五句话,一定要表明因果递进关系,最后一句点题呼应开头)
  • 多样化表达,句型词汇尽量别重复。Variable sentence length ( think about it: Your main aim is to write an elegant and UNDERSTANDABLE text; mix some short sentences with hard hitting facts with some longer sentences, showing off your language skills)
  • Use adverbs ( probably the easiest way to improve; makes your text simply a lot nicer to read)
  • 使用主动语态,不要使用被动
  • 不要使用really,把 a lot 替换为 many,尽量使用简单直接了当的词汇
  • 正确使用linking words,表面因果,递进,转折,并列关系
  • …, such as …., etc.
  • skills of employees -> employees’ skills
  • 不要使用I think that/I believe that,直接删掉说正式的that后的内容
  • important改为essential
  • 清清爽爽使用一些动词和并列结构。尽量使用动词原型,能使用原型表达的绝不使用ing
  • 使用一定的比喻
  • 使用while/whe各一次
  • 使用定语从句两次
  • 并列结构两次
  • 非限定性定语从句两次
  • can help improve
  • can be a good palce for
  • can be benefical for … for two reasons
  • consequently, …
  • so, …
  • A is B because A like B.

Template 5/5 (Museums for a city and its citizens)

Museums are indispensable for a city. Museums can be beneficial for a city’s development for two reasons.

Firstly, museums can help improve a city’s economy by attracting customers from other cities. People from other places could visit museums because they may be interested in some museum exhibitions. When they move around in our city, they will consume and spend money, such as eating at a restaurant, buying goods in a store, purchasing tickets for a museum, etc. These actions all contribute to a city’s economic growth.

Secondly, museums are educational hubs (that provide free lectures, build learning spaces, and exhibit historical artifacts.) Citizens, especially students, could gather here and attend the free lectures while they could discuss their studies and exchange ideas about their research projects. So, museums can be a good place for people to meet and study.


Template 5/5 ()

I think ongoing training and skill development are very important and indispensable. It will help a company develop products, increase employee’s stability, and reduce the anxiety of the employees.

The training will enable the company to develop more advanced products by using the most up-to-date technologies. Taking software development as an example, continuous training is needed because the industry is evolving and updated regularly and rapidly, if a company doesn’t keep up with the trends, it will be in an inferior position in the market.

The training will also keep the skills and ability of employees’ at a high level and reduce their career anxiety, as a consequence, they will be more likely to work at the company for a long time. From the employees’ perspective, they are willing to improve themselves as well, because they want to advance their technologies and skills to gain a better position in a company or the industry.

So, I think that continuing training is very important and indispensable for either a company or an employee.

Here’s what I recommend: 120 words + one subordinating conjunction + three coordinating conjunctions (two unique).

A subordinating conjunction is something like “while” or “when.” A coordinating conjunction is something like “but” or “so.” Note that “and” isn’t so helpful on the TOEFL. Don’t count it as one of the three.

https://www.grammarly.com/blog/subordinating-conjunctions/

Structure(Topic Development)

  • 开头段落:提出一句观点 I’m convinced that,只写一边倒的观点,提出两个分论点。
  • 第二段 Firstly。分论点1的论述,最后逻辑总结,呼应topic sentence。
  • 第三段 Secondly。分论点2的论述,最后逻辑总结,呼应topic sentence。
  • 第四段 Overall。一句话总结点题。呼应开头第一句。

我认为 I’m convinced that … are much better than …

过渡在说第二点的时候用。Moreover, …. is also

总结,Overall,

保证每一段只有一个论点,所有论点都支持结论。

Example Question

Government should intervene and influence on people’s lifestyle choices?

Plan 1(should not):

  • Body paragraph 1: people are free to decide what to do with their own bodies.(Topic sentence)
  • Body paragraph 2: it’s not the government’s job to be parent to people.(Topic sentence 给出论点)
  • Conclusion: people are free to make whatever unhealthy choice they want.

Plan 2(should):

  • Body paragraph 1: people’s unhealthy choices have a negative effect on other people and society as a whole
  • Body paragraph 2: the government should make unhealthy lifestyle choices expensive, difficult or illegal
  • Conclusion: people are not free to make any unhealthy choices they want, and the government has a duty to intervene

Using Linking Words and Phrases

链接词(Topic Development)

  • 起:for a start, to begin with, first and foremost, first, the first reason is that
  • 承:in addition, additionally, besides, what’s more, in addition to …, furthermore, moreover, another reason is that …
  • 转:however, but, on the contrary, on the other hand, nevertheless, nonetheless, albeit, although
  • 合:in conclusion, to sum up, last but no least
  • 因:because, due to, because of, as a result of, result from
  • 果:therefore, thus, hence, so, result in, lead to
  • 例:for example, for instance, such as 1,2,3

Reasoning 词汇语料库(Language Use)

  1. Pragmatism 实用主义
  2. Economy(economical, tax)
  3. Convenience(handy)
  4. Health(healthy, secure, mental/physical health)
  5. Tradition(custom, habit)
  6. Development(technology, society)
  7. Communication
  8. Prospect(self-actualize, career)
  9. Psychology(entertainment, metal health)
  10. Environment(energy-saving, recycling, public transport, less paper usage)

词汇

indispensable 不可或缺

人的品质

altruism 利他主义 honesty 诚实 understanding caring loyalty being thoughtful of others dedicate sense of duty

have confidence in sb. have faith in sb. forgive sb. 原谅某人 upset sb. reliability honesty(most important in a relationship)

健康/安全

  • Relieve stress(workout vs watching movies. Which do you prefer to relax yourself?)
  • Stress-reducer, relax oneself
  • city life being stressful(live in cities vs live in countryside)
  • leave the noisy crowded city, busy cars.
  • go to the quiet rural area.
  • replenish my energy and keep fit, release pressure.

亲情/友情

很好的问题!以下是一些与亲情和友情相关的英语词汇和示例句:

词汇:

  1. Family (n.) - 家人、家庭
  2. Kinship (n.) - 亲属关系
  3. Bond (n.) - 纽带、联系
  4. Loyalty (n.) - 忠诚、忠心
  5. Compassion (n.) - 同情、怜悯
  6. Empathy (n.) - 同理心
  7. Companionship (n.) - 友谊、陪伴
  8. Trust (n.) - 信任
  9. Support (n.) - 支持
  10. Cherish (v.) - 珍视、珍惜

例句:

  1. The strong family bond has helped us weather many storms together. 紧密的家庭纽带帮助我们共同度过了许多风风雨雨。

  2. I am truly grateful for the unwavering loyalty and support of my closest friends. 我衷心感谢最亲密朋友们的坚定忠诚和支持。

  3. Showing compassion and empathy towards others is key to building meaningful relationships. 表现出同情和同理心对于建立有意义的人际关系至关重要。

  4. The companionship and trust we share make our friendship truly special. 我们分享的友谊和信任使这段关系格外珍贵。

  5. I will always cherish the precious memories and moments I’ve had with my family. 我将永远珍视与家人共度的那些宝贵时光和回忆。

  6. Even through difficult times, we remained loyal to each other and never lost hope. 即使在艰难时刻,我们仍忠诚于彼此,从未失去希望。

希望这些词汇和例句对你有帮助!如果还有其他问题,欢迎随时提出。

Economy/Money 经济省钱 be economical; save money

It helps us/me to save a lot of time and energy. For example, Before, it took me 1 hour to get to my company, but now, it only takes me 30 minutes.

生活压力

投资自己

消费购物

Here are some sentences about making money and saving money:

  1. Exploring side hustles or freelance opportunities can be a great way to supplement your primary income and make extra money.

  2. Creating and sticking to a monthly budget can help you identify areas where you can cut expenses and save money.

  3. Automating your savings by setting up regular transfers to a dedicated savings account can make it easier to reach your financial goals.

  4. Investing in stocks, bonds, or other financial instruments can be a strategy for growing your wealth and making your money work for you.

  5. Being mindful of your spending habits and looking for ways to reduce unnecessary expenses can lead to significant savings over time.

  6. Negotiating your salary or asking for a raise at work can be an effective way to increase your earning potential.

  7. Taking advantage of employer-sponsored retirement plans, like 401(k)s, can help you save for the future while also lowering your tax burden.

  8. Researching and taking advantage of government programs, tax credits, or other financial incentives can be a smart way to save money.

  9. Developing passive income streams, such as rental properties or dividend-paying investments, can diversify your sources of revenue.

  10. Adopting a frugal lifestyle, such as cooking at home, cutting back on discretionary spending, and finding free or low-cost entertainment, can help you save significantly.

省钱的英文: be economical; save money

2省钱的英文参考例句: A penny saved is a penny earned

省钱就是赚钱

It is less costly to freight merchandise than to mail it.

货运商品比邮寄省钱。

Save on time and money by shopping at the supermarket

到超级市场购物省时省钱

The Boss wanted to look into ways to save money.

老板想研究省钱的方法。

I, who at sometimes spend, at others spare.

我有时候花钱,另一些时候省钱。

Best-selling sweaters. Save on these sought–after styles.

最畅销的运动衫。既流行,又省钱。

The company has decided for economy’s sake to close down this department.

为了省钱,公司决定关闭这个部门。

The Government has introduced a number of other money-saving moves.

政府已经采取了其他一些省钱的举措。

Join the car-pool and save money and wear and tear on your car.

参加共乘制度上下班既能省钱又减少车子的磨损。

This car is economical to run because it doesn’t use much fuel.

开这辆车省钱,因为它耗油不多。

3省钱的英文相关词汇:

  • economical是什么意思:adj. 经济的;节约的;合算的;精打细算的,省钱的
  • an economical shopper; 精打细算的购物者;
  • economic planning 制订经济计划

save是什么意思:

v. 挽救;储蓄;保存;节省;救球;存盘

n. 救球,救援

prep. 除…外

Saving is getting

节约等于收入

Save the macro.

保存这个宏。

Her savings were in the Post Office Savings Bank.

她的钱存在邮政储蓄银行里。

money是什么意思:

n.

1.[U]钱,薪水,收入

2.[U]钱币,钞票

3.[U]财产,财富

4.[pl.]【旧】【法律】款项

Robin is the man for my money.(for my money正合我意)

罗宾正合我意

The avoidance of money is just as psychotic as being attached to money.

我可不这么认为。闭口不谈钱就像依赖钱一样是一种心理疾病。

get money by dishonest means

非法赚钱, 得不义之财

好的,以下是一些关于省钱经济的英语例句:

  1. I created a monthly budget to keep track of my expenses and save more money. 我制定了一个每月的预算,来跟踪我的开支,存更多钱。

  2. Buying in bulk at the wholesale club helps me save a lot on household items.
    在批发俱乐部大量购买家用品可以帮我节省很多钱。

  3. Using coupons and taking advantage of sales helps me cut down on my grocery bills. 使用优惠券并利用销售机会帮我减少了杂货费用。

  4. I’m trying to be more frugal this year and cut back on unnecessary spending.
    今年我正努力过更节俭的生活,减少不必要的开支。

  5. Eating out less and cooking at home is a great way for me to save money. 少吃外食,多在家做饭是我节省钱的好方法。

  6. I always look for the most cost-effective option when making a purchase. 在购买时,我总是寻找性价比最高的选择。

  7. Instead of buying new clothes, I go thrifting to find affordable and unique items. 我不会购买新衣服,而是去二手商店淘便宜又独特的物品。

希望这些例句对你有帮助!如果你还有其他问题,欢迎随时问我。

Social/Team

  • teamwork makes me happy
  • make new friends(group study vs individual study. Learn from books vs. learn by traveling.)
  • Enhance family bond(travel with family members vs. travel with friends)
  • Team Spirit(individual sports vs. team sports)

Environment

  • Green commuting(go to word by riding a bike vs. driving a car. )
  • Environmental protection(a parking lot vs. a park to be built)
  • Environmentally friendly
  • which promotes sustainable development. 可持续发展

生物生态类

  • terrible consequences 可怕的后果
  • ecological disaster 生态灾难
  • the whole ecosystem will suffer
  • vital part of the ecosystem
  • devastate their populations
  • indispensable

经济金钱

aggravate financial burdens on ordinary families other expenditures 其他的开销 affort 负担 cost 话费 pay for the costs of allocate more money to …

disposable income 可支配收入

Many people believe that conspicuous consumption is an antisocial behavior. 很多人认为大手大脚的消费是一种对社会有害的行为。

levy a tax on… = officially request payment of a tax

be economical 经济实用的,节省开支的 A small family car is more economical than a large car. 一辆小的家用汽车比大型汽车要经济些。

专注focused/高效 efficient

  • nobody bothers me and I finish my work without interruption.
  • no/less distractions
  • easily to be concentrated
  • has a high work/study efficiency
  • more efficient

个人成长

好的,以下是一些与个人成长相关的英语词汇和例句:

词汇:

  1. Self-improvement (n.) - 自我提升、自我完善
  2. Resilience (n.) - 韧性、抗逆力
  3. Adaptability (n.) - 适应能力
  4. Discipline (n.) - 自律、纪律
  5. Perseverance (n.) - 坚韧、毅力
  6. Ambition (n.) - 抱负、野心
  7. Confidence (n.) - 自信
  8. Empathy (n.) - 同理心
  9. Growth Mindset (n.) - 成长型思维
  10. Self-Awareness (n.) - 自我认知

例句:

  1. Developing a growth mindset has really helped me overcome challenges and improve myself. 培养成长型思维真的帮助我克服困难,不断提升自己。

  2. Her resilience and perseverance in the face of adversity are truly inspiring. 她在逆境中表现出的韧性和毅力真的让人敬佩。

  3. He is constantly working on improving his skills and expanding his knowledge through self-study. 他一直通过自学不断提升技能,扩展知识面。

  4. Practicing mindfulness and self-awareness has made me more empathetic towards others. 练习正念和自我认知让我对他人有了更强的同理心。

  5. With discipline and a clear sense of ambition, she was able to achieve her career goals. 凭借自律和明确的抱负,她最终实现了职业目标。

  6. Adaptability is an essential skill in today’s rapidly changing world. 在瞬息万变的当今世界,适应能力是必备的关键技能。

希望这些词汇和例句对你有所帮助!如果你还有其他问题,欢迎随时提出。

经典句型/语法(Language Use)

  • advantages/disadvantages
  • good and bad points
  • It is more important to do A than to do B.
  • Alrough A is …, B does sth.
  • Carson, a highly respected wirter on scientific topics, was born in 1907 on a farm for wich many people lived and worked.
  • All of this effort paid off eventually.
  • Try new things is pretty rewarding
  • in order TO FOSTER 为了培养
  • Which contributes to … 会导致
  • The financial burden on taxpayers will be eased significantly.

非常好的问题!以下是一些在托福写作中可以使用的高分/提分句型和语法结构:

句型:

  1. 复合句

    • Although the policy has faced some criticism, it has significantly improved the situation.
    • While technology has brought many conveniences, it has also created new challenges.
  2. 并列句

    • Not only did the new program boost employment rates, but it also improved overall economic conditions.
    • The research not only highlighted the problem, but also provided concrete solutions.
  3. 倒装句

    • Only by addressing the root causes can we truly resolve this issue.
    • Never before have we seen such a dramatic shift in consumer behavior.
  4. 强调句

    • It is the lack of funding that has hindered progress on this project.
    • What is most important is that we take immediate action to address this pressing concern.
  5. 转折句

    • Despite the initial setbacks, the team was able to successfully implement the new strategy.
    • Even though the changes will be challenging, they are necessary for long-term sustainability.

语法结构:

  1. 时态一致性

    • Having conducted extensive research, the team concluded that…
    • By the time the reforms are implemented, the economy will have already stabilized.
  2. 高级副词

    • The new policy was enacted remarkably quickly to address the urgent situation.
    • Consumers have responded exceedingly well to the innovative product design.
  3. 名词性从句

    • What is clear is that the current system is no longer sustainable.
    • Whether the proposed solution is feasible remains to be seen.
  4. 冠词使用

    • The government’s lack of a coherent strategy has hindered progress.
    • Effective leadership is crucial in overcoming such complex challenges.
  5. 学术词汇

    • This empirical study provides invaluable insights into the underlying dynamics.
    • The multifaceted nature of the problem necessitates a comprehensive approach.

Requirements

Grammar

The response appears to be strong. There may be only a few errors with the following features:

  • Sentence fragments
  • Run-on sentences?(A run-on sentence occurs when two independent clauses run together without proper punctuation or appropriate conjunctions. Incorrect: Raffi sings upbeat children’s songs he is an excellent musician.)
  • Confusing sentences
  • Subject-verb agreement
  • Verb formation
  • Pronoun errors
  • Possessive error (missing an apostrophe)?
  • Wrong or missing words

Usage

The response appears to be strong. There may be only a few errors with the following features:

  • Missing, extra, or incorrectly used articles
  • Confused words
  • Wrong or nonstandard word forms
  • Incorrect comparisons?
  • Preposition errors
  • Negation errors?
  • Wrong part of speech

Mechanics

Errors in mechanics only impact performance when they interfere with comprehensibility. The response appears to be strong. There may be only a few errors with the following features:

  • Spelling
  • Capitalization
  • Missing punctuation
  • Hyphen error
  • Compound words
  • Duplicated words or phrases
  • Extra commas

Organization Development

One or more of the following features could not be found in the response:

  • Thesis statement?
  • Main ideas
  • Supporting ideas
  • Introductory material?
  • Transitional words and phrases

Thesis

Thesis statement

Sums up the main point of your paper. 1 or 2 sentences long. Appears at the end of your introduction. Say goodbye to going-off topic.

Introductory material

This section introduces the topic or problem in an interesting, general, and professional manner.

Run-on sentences

A run-on sentence occurs when two independent clauses run together without proper punctuation or appropriate conjunctions.

  • Incorrect: Raffi sings upbeat children’s songs he is an excellent musician.

  • Correct: Raffi sings upbeat children’s songs; he is an excellent musician.

  • Incorrect: I will watch The Office you do your homework.

  • Correct: I will watch The Office while you do your homework.