English Long and Difficult Sentences

英语长难句的学习

中级

并列句

and, but, or

Newman notes(说) that Portland has about the same population as Perth and had a similar population density at the time.

I learned TOEFL reading and returned books to the library.

She invented and patented special arrangements of mirrors and *concocted(制造) chemical dyes for her draperies(衣物).

名词性从句

主语从句

Why people are prepared to tolerate a four-hour journey each day for the dubious privilege of living in the country is beyond me.

That (the equipment of modern camping becomes more sophisticated) is a brighter promise for the hopeful traveler (who has sworn to get away from it all(摆脱现代世界)).

It’s no secret that many children would be healthier and happier with adoptive parents(收养) than with the parents(that nature deals them)

宾语从句

I know that…

than(可省略),whether/if,who,which,when,where,why

suggest, demand, order that you (should) do…

People in less developed countries often imagine that they can become rich simply by emigrating to America.

Managers of this type often do not realize how disastrous this policy may be for the men’s health and the company’s reputation.

A assert that B is influenced by …, by the C in which …

A requires that …

Anthropologists wondered where … came from.

表语从句

从句在系动词be之后。引导词:that, whether/if, who, which, when, where,why

The problem is (who we can get to replace him).

The problem for universities is that (if those benefits fail materialise, students notice).

Our schools are where we send our children to get a practical education–not to pursue knowledge for the sake of knowledge.

  • pursue 追求
  • for the sake of 为了

Galileo’s greatest glory was that (in 1609 he was the first person to turn the newly invented telescope to the heavens to prove that the planets revolve around the sun rather than around the earth.)

The problem with novelty(新奇), however, is that [it tends to] trigger the brain’s fear system.

A commonly accepted rule of civilized society is that when pulic health is threatened, privacy rights must be compromised.

conspire with sb 与某人合谋

But the truth is that faculty members, and even students, consipire with administrators (to keep the lecture system alive and well.)

The general rule of social precedence is that people of greater importance precede those of lesser importance.

But the one thing we know for sure is that with each advance in globalization and the I.T. revolution, the best jobs will require workers to have more and better education to make themselves above average.

  • vigilance 警觉
  • blunt 坦率的
  • relentless 连续的
  • fatiguing 令人疲倦的

The blunt truth of the matter is that (human beings are not designed for tasks which require relentless vigilance): for the sophisticated human brain these are fatiguing and boring.

Perhaps the most commonly voiced objection (to volunteer participation during the under-graduate years) is that it consumes time and energy that the students might otherwise devote to “academic” pursuits.

同位语从句

名词后面跟从句,一般两种情况:同位语或定语。

同位语:用一个名词对前面的一个名词解释,本名词被称为同位语。

能接同位语从句的名词一般有两个特点:1. 抽象;2. 有内涵, 如idea, fact, news, truth, discovery, report, thought, statement, suggestion, conclusion, possibility, opinion等。但如 building, ship 等名词后一般不能接同位语从句。

引导词:that, whether/if, who, which,what, when, where,why

如果句子的谓语较短,同位语从句经常与所修饰的名词分隔。

I saw a man over there, our teacher(同位语).

A saying goes that practice makes perfect.

同位语从句和定语从句的区别?

The news that he passed the exam was encouraging.(同位语从句)
The news that she told me was encouraging.(定语从句)

分这么细,有点儿过度了,其实主要是看that指代什么。 – yongqiang

Reports came into London Zoo (that a wild puma had been spotted forty-five miles south of London).

A large number of insitutions(制度,机构) are premised(前提) on the assumption that intervention in the internal affairs of others is often desirable.

premise v. an idea or theory on which a statement or action is based

The research project is based on the premise stated earlier. 這項研究計劃是基於早先提出的假設之上的。

Others have attributed increased cheating to the fact (that today’s youth are far more pragmatic(功利/实用主义) than their more idealistic predecessors.)

There is little evidence (that traditional efforts to boost financial know-how help students make better decisions outside the classroom.)

Plato expressed the idea that (humor is simply a delighted feeling of superiority over others.)

The fact (that a woman has had an education) may simply indicate her family’s wealth or that it values its children more highly.

value v. 重视

These leaders are living proof (that prevention works) and (that we can manage the health problems) that come naturally with age.

这些领导人就是活生生的证据,表明预防是可行的,而且表明人们能够解决随年龄增长而产生的健康问题。

A century ago, Freud formulated his revolutionary theory that (dreams were the disguised shadow of our unconscious desires and fears.) 梦是我们无意识的欲望和恐惧的伪装阴影。

One argument (used to support the idea) that employment will continue to be the dominant form of work, and that employment will eventually become available for all who want it, is that working time will continue to fall.

同位语从句大多由连词 that 引导 (不能省略)。常用置于抽象名词 fact, idea, thought,notion, opinion, news, evidence, hope, belief, suggestion, decision, conclusion 等后面,用来解释或说明这些名词的具体含义或内容, 在逻辑上表现为同位关系。

例句:

The news that our women volleyball team had won the championship encouragedus all greatly.

我们女排赢得冠军的消息极大地鼓舞了我们大家。

There was little hope that they would survive.

他们活下来的希望很小。

He made a proposal that the meeting should be postponed.

他建议会议推迟召开。

I’ve come from Mr. Wang with a message that he won’t be able to see you this afternoon.

我从王先生那里得到消息,他今天下午不能来看你了。

We came to the decision that we must act at once.

我们决定必须立即行动。

They are familiar with the opinion that all matter consists of atoms.

他们熟悉所有物质都由原子组成的观点。

Despite repeated assurances that the product is safe, many people have stopped buying it.

尽管已反复保证了该产品的安全性,很多人还是不再购买。

He always had an illusion that his position was not secure in the company.

他总有一种幻觉, 他在公司的职位很不安全。

When I first met him I got the impression that he was a shy sort of person.

初次见到他时,我觉得他属于那种害羞的人。

Strive to change your own fate. Never believe the notion that if one is born poor, one is destined to die poor.

努力去改变你自己的命运。千万不要去相信这样的说法:如果一个人生来贫穷,那他注定要贫穷着死去。

The conclusion that high and rising property prices can throttle economic activity carries important implications for how policymakers should treat investment in land and housing.

房地产价格高且不断上涨会抑制经济活动,这一结论对于决策者应如何处理土地和房

产投资问题,具有重要意义。

● 有时同位语从句可以不紧跟在它所说明的名词后,而被别的词语隔开,在语法上叫做分隔式同位语从句。

例句:

The thought came to her that maybe she had left the door open when she left home.

她突然想起可能在她离开家时没把门关上。

However, no evidence could be found that would throw direct suspicion on him.

然而,没有找不到可以直接怀疑他的证据。

An early example was a bet made by Michael Marcus in 1975 that a surge of oil revenue would force Saudi Arabia to revalue its currency.

一个早期的例子是迈克尔 · 马库斯 (Michael Marcus)在1975年押注的,他认为石油收入的激增将迫使沙特阿拉伯重新评估其货币。

● that 引导同位语从句与定语从句区别

that在同位语从句中是连词, 只起连接作用, 无具体词义, that 不可省略; that 引导的同

位语从句,是前面先行词的内容。

that 在定语从句中是关系代词, 它在从句中充当一定成分 —— 主语或宾语, 有具体词

意, 作宾语时还可以省略.

The news that he will leave for Shanghai is true.

他将要去上海的消息是真的. (同位语从句,that从句是名词news的具体内容)

The news (that) he told me yesterday was true.

昨天他告诉我的那个消息是真的? (定语从句, that从句修饰名词,在从句中作told的

宾语,可以省略)

● 由wh-word引导同位语从句

有些名词,如 question, idea, doubt, problem 等后面可用疑问词 wh-ward 作连词,引导同位语从句。

例句:

We have some doubt whether they can complete the task on time. (if 不能引导同位语从句)

我们怀疑他们是否准时完成任务。

There’s no doubt who is the best candidate.

毫无疑问,谁是最佳人选。

I have no idea when he will come back.

我不知道他什么时候回来。

The problem when the meeting should be held has not been decided.

什么时候开会的问题还没有决定。

We don’t understand the problem why this is the best choice.

我们不明白这个问题,为什么这是最好的选择。

The question how and why those people got the information still worried him.

那些人是如何以及为什么得到这些信息的,这个问题仍然困扰着他。

形容词性从句(定语从句)

定语(形容词)修饰名词(代词)的。

定语从句即在句中用一个具有主谓结构的完整的句子来充当定语,修饰前面的名词(短语)或代词称为先行词

常见引导词:that, who, which, where, when, why.

定语从句分为限定性非限定性。限定性定语从句的关系词和先行词之间不用逗号隔开,而非限定性定语从句则用逗号隔开,不能以that引导。

Most foods (that we consume on a daily basis like potatoes and rice) are loaded with carbohydrates.

Those who (contemplate the beauty of the earth) find reserves of strength (that will endure as long as life exists.)

Many parents do not display the degree of respect for their parents (that people in more traditional or family-oriented societies commonly display).

There was a time not long ago when new science Ph.D.s in the Unitied States were expected to pursue a career path in academia.

Countries (with the highest scores) tend to be clustered(集中) in the West, where gender discrimination is against the law, and equal rights are constitutionally enshrined.

enshrine v. 神圣化

Any engineer will recognize these as characteristic of typical engineering problem, (which doctors and engineers have worked together to solve), in order to bring a fresh life to people (who would otherwise be disabled.)

“介词+关系代词”引导的定语从句概念

The age (at which young people are allowed to drive any vehicle) should be raised to at least 21.

The mechanism (by which brain cells store memories) is not clearly understood.

Happiness (without meaning) characterizes a relatively shallow, self-absorbed or even selfish life, (in which) things go well, needs and desires are easily satisfied, and complicated relationships are avoided.

Most journalists learn to see the world through a set of standard templates (into which they plug each day’s events). 多数记者使用一套标准化的创作模式报道世界,将日常事件套入其中即可。

In early 1976, Mau Pialug, a freshman, led an expedition (in which he sailed a traditional Polynesian boat across 2,500 miles of ocean from Hawaii to Tahiti.)

He had at last been allowed to send a fax (in which he informed the editor that he had been arrested while counting the 1,084 steps leading to the 15-foot wall which surrounded the president’s palace.)

Silicon Valley is a magnet (to which numerous talented engineers, scientists and entrepreneurs from overseas flock in search of fame, fast money and to participate in a technological revolution) (whose impact on mankind will surely surpass the epoch-making European Renaissance and Industrial Revolution of the bygone(过去的) age.)

副词性从句(状语从句)

状语从句是在句中作状语成份的句子,状语从句可以修饰谓语或整个句子。状语从句的位置灵活,可放在句首、句中、或句末,位于句首时,常用逗号隔开,如从句较短且与主句关系密切时,可不用逗号。

副词修饰动词,形容词或某些副词。

九大类:时间、地点、原因、条件、结果、让步、目的、方式、比较。

时间状语从句

时间状语从句的引导词:when, whenever, while, after, as, before, no sooner … than…, hardly/scarcely… when…, the minute, the moment, the instant, every time, directily, instantly, immediately等

  • hero 男主人公
  • heroine 女主人公
  • poison 下毒,投毒

The reader’s hair stands on end when he reads in the final pages of the novel that the heroine, a dear old lady who had always been so kind to everybody, had, in her youth, poisoned every one of her five hunbands.

If you think you’ll abandon meat and become a vegetarian,( you have the choice of) very expensive organically-grown vegetables or a steady diet of pesticides (every time you think you’re eating fresh salads and vegetables, or just having an innocent glass of water!)

I had no sooner got off the ship than I was assailed by a man (who wanted to sell me a diamond ring.)

No sooner had I got off the ship than I was assailed by a man who wanted to sell me a diamond ring.

When highly gifted students (in any domain) talk about (what was important to the development of their abilities), they are far more likely to mention their families than their schools or teachers.

The lecture system reduces feedback to a minimum, so that the lecturer can neither judge (how well students understand the material) nor benefit from their questions or comments.

When Thomas Keller, one of America’s foremost chefs, announced (that on Sept.1 he would abolish the practice of tipping at Per Se, his luxury restaurant in New York City, and replaces it with European-style service charge), I knew three groups would be opposed: customers, servers and restaurant owners.

directly conj. 一…就

He thought that (directly internal confidence in the government declined), its financial structure would be in danger.

These obligations are so baked into American values that few parents stop to ask whether they worth the efforts.

The newly described languages were often so strikingly different from the well studied languages of Europe and Southeast Asia that some scholors even accused Boas and Sapir of fabricating their data.

地点状语从句

引导词: where, wherever, anywhere, everywhere. 句首和主句用逗号间隔。

Corn flourishes best where the ground is rich.

There were ovations(欢迎) everywhere they went.

Where the cost of government is high, resources for development are correspondingly low.

Where the white man has invaded a primitive culture// the most destructive effects have come not from physical weapons but from ideas.

Where there is a fire, there is smoke.

Where there is life, there is hope.

Where there is nepotism(裙带关系), there is corruption.

Where there is marriage without love, there is love without marriage.

原因状语从句

because, as, for, since, considering, in that, now that, given that, on the ground that.

Now that(原因) a tunnel has been built through the mountains, the Pass is less dangerous (than before.)

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