World History


The three-age system

Stone Age(3.4 million years - 3000 B.C.E)

The Stone Age was a broad prehistoric period during which stone was widely used to make stone tools with an edge, a point, or a percussion surface. The period lasted for roughly 3.4 million years[1] and ended between 4,000 BC and 2,000 BC, with the advent of metalworking.[2] It therefore represents nearly 99.3% of human history.

Paleolithic, Mesolithic and Neolithic.

Bronze Age (3000 B.C.E.–1200 B.C.E.)

The Bronze Age is a historic period, lasting from approximately 3300 BC to 1200 BC. It is characterized by the use of bronze, the use of writing in some areas, and other features of early urban civilization. The Bronze Age is the second principal period of the three-age system proposed in 1836 by Christian Jürgensen Thomsen for classifying and studying ancient societies and history. It is also considered the second phase of three, in the Metal Ages.

Iron Age(1200 B.C.E. -)

Modern archaeological evidence identifies the start of large-scale global iron production about 1200 BC, marking the end of the Bronze Age. The Iron Age in Europe is often considered as a part of the Bronze Age collapse in the ancient Near East.

Culture VS Civilization

  • Culture: literature, art… 无形的
  • Civilization: 有型的器物层面,城市,纪念碑,博物馆

learned behavior of people, including their languages, belief systems, social structures, institutions, and material goods. Also: a group of people that share the same cultural traits and values.

To ensure a separation of powers, the U.S. Federal Government is made up of three branches: legislative, executive and judicial.

Egypt -> Mesopotamia -> Ancient Greece








The Americas 美洲文明

  • Zapotecs
  • Maya
  • Aztecs
  • Mesoamerica
  • Inka
  • Moche
  • Caral

Sumerian Social Structure

  1. Priest & Kings
  2. Wealthy Merchants
  3. Ordinary Citizens
  4. Slaves

American History

The American Government

  • Declaration of Independence(July 04, 1776): independent from England(Independent Day)
  • The Constitution(宪法,最高法律 supreme law): created the three branches of government and explained each one’s duties.(made United States a country and established its laws)
  • Bill of Rights: amended the constitution and gave various rights to the people.(ten amendments, people feared the federal government would become too powerful)
  • delegate 代表
  • petion 请求
  • founding fathers: Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Jefferson, George Washington
  • inalienable rights 不可剥夺的权利: life, liberty, the pursuit of happiness
  • American Government: excutive, legislative, judicial

The Bill of Rights protects the basic rights that every American has. Among the freedoms promised in the Bill of Rights are those of speech, religion and assembly.

The Election System of the United States

Every four years, Americans elect a president. A candidate must win the nomination of his or her political party at the national convention. The Electoral College makes the final vote for president.

democracy: a type of government in which power is held by the people.

The American Civil War(美国内战,南北战争)


  • Abraham Lincoln was president of the United States and kept the Union together(opponent of slavery)
  • General Ulysses S. Grant was the leader of all Union military forces.
  • General Robert E. Lee was the leader of all Confederate military forces.

By the 1850s, North’s economy was industrial and had many factories. The South’s economy was focused on agriculture. Tabacco and cotton were especially important cash crops in the South. To run the plantations, slave labor bacame a central part of life in the South. In most Northern states, slavery was illegal.

  • secede from the Union 脱离

President Lincoln declared that all slaves in the Confederate states were free. This marked a turning point in the war.

The central cause of the war was the dispute over whether slavery would be permitted to expand into the western territories, leading to more slave states, or be prevented from doing so, which many believed would place slavery on a course of ultimate extinction.

Post-Civil War

  • President Abraham Lincoln was assassinated only a few days after the war ended

  • The Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution made slavery illegal in the country

  • Union troops remained in the South until Reconstruction ended in 1877

  • amnesty 大赦: forgiveness, often concerning a legal matter.

  • Black Codes: laws restricted the basic right of blacks to own property and to engage in certain businesses.

The Thirteenth Amendment made slavery illegal. The b says that everyone born in the United States is automatically a citizen of the United States and has the right to get “equal protection” under the law. The fifteenth Amendment makes it illegal for the state and federal governments to discriminate against people because of their race or color.

The Nation Grows

What were some inventions that helped improve people’s lives in the nineteenth century?

  1. telephone: communicate over long idstances 电话
  2. electric light and phonograph 电灯和留声机
  3. steam locomotive 蒸汽机车


  • Industrialization and Urbanization 工业化和城市化
  • enact regulations
  • monopolies 垄断
  • expansion
  • spur
  • transcontinental railroad
  • working conditions
  • unions 工会
  • emerged 出现
  • dominated the … industry

War and Revolution(World War I, 1914-1918)

  • European countries competed for colonies in Africa and Asia
  • The Europeans often treated their colonies poorly
  • Feelings of nationalism arose in Europe and in other places around the world

Industrial Reveoution(1750-1830): the period of time when goods began to be made by machines.

mass production

Imperialism(帝国注意,比如大英帝国,对外殖民):a policy of extending a country’s power and influence through colonization, use of military force, or other means.

Imperialism caused many problems. The Europeans often treated their colonies poorly. The people who were colonized were abused and led poor lived. The Europeans also ignored these countries’ histories, traditions and cultures. Then this leads to nationalism.

Nationalism is extreme pride in belonging to a country or ethnic group.

Eventually, these conflicts and the feelings of nationalism among European nations caused World War I to begin. 最终,这些冲突和欧洲国家之间的民族主义情绪导致了第一次世界大战的爆发。

World War II(1939 to 1945)

Second World War was a global conflict that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world’s countries, including all the great powers, fought as part of two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis(同盟国与轴心国).

  • dictatorship
  • propaganda
  • fascist
  • totalitarian 极权主义
  • aggressively
  • Allies
  • Axis Powers
  • turning point
  • surrendered
  • atomic bombs

Totalitarianism(极权主义) is a political system and a form of government that prohibits opposition political parties, disregards and outlaws the political claims of individual and group opposition to the state, and controls the public sphere and the private sphere of society.

  • Axis Powers: German(Hitler), Italy and Japan.(发动战争)
  • Allies: England, France and Russia


Jobs and Occupations

  • shipwrights 造船师
  • merchant 商人
  • scribes 文士(老师,文员)
  • private tutors
  • artist
  • musician
  • construction workers
  • canel builders
  • bakers
  • basket makers
  • butchers 屠夫
  • fishermen 渔夫
  • cup bearers
  • brick makers
  • brewers 酿酒师
  • prostitutes 妓女
  • metallurgists 冶金学家
  • carpenters 木匠
  • perfume makers
  • potters
  • jewelry makers
  • goldsmiths 金匠
  • cart and chariot drivers 马车和战车的司机
  • soldiers
  • sailors
  • esteemed postions 受人尊敬的职位
  • tavern keepers 酒馆老板
  • docters
  • dentists
  • tended horses 照料马匹


The lowest social order was the slaves. One could become a slave in a number of ways: being captured in war, selling oneself into slavery to pay off a debt, being sold as punishment for a crime, being kidnapped and sold into slavery in another region, or being sold by a family member to relieve a debt. Slaves had no single ethnicity nor were they solely employed for manual labor. Slaves kept house, managed large estates, tutored young children, tended horses, served as accountants and skilled jewelry makers, and could be employed in whatever capacity their master saw they had a talent in. A slave who worked diligently for his or her master could eventually buy their freedom.



Perfumes were made by “steeping aromatic plants in water and blending their essence with oil”.

Europeans in the Americas

  • The Aztec(Mexico) Empire in Central America was defeated
  • The Inca(Peru) Empire in South America was destroyed by Francisco Pissarro
  • The Spanish enslaved Native Americans and took much treasure from the natives.

The First Frech and English Colonies

  • Spanish focused on Central and South America
  • France and England focused on North America
  • Canada: the french mostly explored

Words and Phrases

  • king/queen
  • foes/enemy 敌人
  • paradime 天堂
  • decimated 大量毁灭,大批杀死
  • homo sapiens 智人
  • maritime superpower 海上超级大国
  • prolific trade 丰富的贸易
  • Carthage 迦太基
  • willpower, determination and discipline 意志力、决心和纪律
  • paleolithic 旧石器时代
  • neolithic 新石器时代
  • Mesopotamia 美索不达米亚
  • prosperity 繁荣
  • millennium 千年
  • Nile river 尼罗河
  • Ancient Egypt
  • sedentary 固定,定居的,坐着的
  • outskirt 郊区
  • nomadic 游牧民族
  • Phoenicians 腓尼基人(经商,24个字母,构成26个字母), Syria, Lebanon, northern Israel. purple dye
  • ingots of copper and tin 铜锭和锡锭
  • faience objects 彩陶对象
  • groves 树林
  • Hebrews 希伯来人(以色列)
  • enigma 难解之谜(金字塔)
  • 印度,中东历史文字缺失
  • Aryans 雅利安人(大草原,Caste and Class 种姓制度)
  • Caste 种姓制度
  • The Mauryan Empire 孔雀王朝(印度)
  • The Assyrian Empire 亚述王国(叙利亚)
  • The Persian Empire 波斯帝国(土耳其,伊朗)
  • The Rule of the Fishes 鱼类生存的法则
  • aristocracy 军阀/贵族统治
  • The Exuberant World of Indian Culture 旺盛
  • Grains: Grain is the harvested seed of grasses such as wheat, oats, rice, and corn.
  • justice n. 正义,公道
  • dawn 黎明
  • The Shang Dynasty 商朝,河南安阳(殷墟)
  • Minoan Crete 克里特岛
  • Dark Age
  • city-states 城邦(希腊,本地不适合农业)
  • Tyranny 农民统治,暴民统治
  • Athens 雅典,强调民主议事
  • Mediterranean 地中海
  • Sparta 斯巴达(Laconia)武士
  • Polis 政治
  • just 正义,公正
  • justify 证明合法(联系:师出有名,做事的动机,司法机关)
  • Maya 文化
  • Aztec 文化
  • Judiciary 司法机关
  • hero and villain 英雄和坏人
  • ruler/leader
  • empire 帝国
  • emperor 皇帝,君主
  • authority 权力
  • territory 领地
  • civilization 文明
  • dialect 方言
  • agriculture 农业
  • framland 农田
  • irrigation 灌溉
  • sugarcane 甘蔗
  • cane 甘蔗
  • kick-started 启动
  • a dearth of precious metal 贵金属短缺
  • lucrative settlements 有利可图的定居点
  • drought 干旱
  • nobles and peasants 贵族和农民
  • pharaoh: a king of Egypt. 法老 god-king of Egypt.
  • Mandate of Heaven 天命
  • civic 公民的
  • secular authority 世俗权威
  • patriarch 族长;(男性)家长;(东正教和天主教的)牧首;宗主教;酋长;德高望重的男长者
  • alms 救济金
  • arable land 耕地
  • arable 适于耕种的
  • exotic 外来物,进口的,舶来品,异国情调的
  • artifacts 史前古器物
  • clans 氏族
  • momentous 重要的
  • cramped 狭窄的,拥挤的,confined
  • abruptly 突然
  • hereditary hierarchies 世袭等级制度
  • cortex 大脑皮层 皮质
  • egalitarian 平等主义
  • ushered in 迎来了
  • chattel slavery 动产奴隶制
  • leisure 闲暇
  • lavish 奢侈的
  • luxury 奢侈
  • spiraling 螺旋式
  • dreadful 可怕的
  • rigid social class 严格的社会阶层
  • harshly 严厉地
  • stratified 分层
  • status 社会地位
  • inequility 不平等
  • class 阶级
  • happiness and prosperity 幸福与繁荣
  • sail v./n. 帆,起航,航行
  • voyage n. 航行,游历
  • preaching 说教,讲道
  • airy mosques 通风的清真寺
  • drab and gloomy 单调而灰暗
  • feudal system 封建制度
  • superstition 迷信
  • devout missionaries 虔诚的传教士
  • barbarian 野蛮人
  • savage 野蛮
  • brute 野蛮
  • bishops and cardinals 主教和红衣主教
  • monks and nuns 僧侣和修女
  • raid 突袭
  • warrior 战士,勇士
  • berserker 狂暴战士
  • sailor 海员,水手
  • battle tactics
  • lord and vassal 领主和附庸
  • serfs 农奴
  • Catholic 天主教
  • Pope 教皇
  • armor 盔甲
  • bow 弓
  • famine 饥荒
  • plague 瘟疫
  • lymph glands 淋巴腺
  • warfare 战争
  • destitute 贫困
  • pottery 陶器。used for store grain or cook.
  • strife 冲突
  • forge 锻造; forge the greatest empire
  • invasion and slaughter 入侵和屠杀
  • pay tribute 致敬
  • account 记事,账户
  • siege engines 攻城器械
  • siege 围城
  • moat 护城河
  • barbaric 野蛮
  • secular 世俗的
  • resorting to ruthless or immoral means 诉诸残忍或不道德的手段
  • exerted relentless control of local tribes 对当地部落进行无情的控制
  • exert 竭尽全力
  • unheard of 闻所未闻
  • divition of labour
  • social stratification 社会分层
  • stern spartans 严厉的斯巴达人
  • empire’s demise 帝国的灭亡
  • sack a city 洗劫一个城市
  • dynasty 王朝
  • bronze age 青铜时代 A metal alloy (= mix of metals) of gold-like color created by combining copper and other metals, mostly tin, in the ancient world. It is significantly more robust than copper alone.
  • revolt 反叛,起义,暴动,作乱
  • cradle 摇篮,发祥地
  • annex 吞并
  • culminate 达到顶峰
  • oligarchy 寡头政治
  • hunter-gather society
  • herders 牧民
  • mesoamerica 中美洲
  • mesopotamia 美索不达米亚
  • diffuse spread 扩散
  • obsessed with 执着(fixation on)
  • marching legions 行军军团,地面部队
  • legions 军团,军队
  • disdain 轻视,蔑视
  • virtually 几乎,实质上,简直
  • might 可能,威力,强权
  • imitator 模仿者
  • consciously 有意识地
  • philosophy: the study of the basic principles of knowledge.
  • science: knowledge focused on facts based on observation, identification, description, investigation, and explanation.
  • theory: explanation that has not been proven as fact.
  • democracy: system of organization or government where the people decide policies or elect representatives to do so.
  • freedom of speech: right to express one’s opinions freely, without fear of censorship or social sanction
  • inquiry: series of questions or an investigation into an event.
  • economy stumbles: 经济陷入困境
  • stumble 绊倒,蹒跚
  • tarnished: 失去光泽的
  • Socratic method: instructional strategy in which questions are used to elicit an idea, admission, or set of answers.
  • symposium: large meeting or conference on a specific subject.
  • proliferate: 增生
  • satire: work of art that makes fun of ideas and social convention through use of irony, sarcasm, and ridicule.
  • entertainment:performance or material produced to interest and amuse.
  • gunpowder empire 火药帝国
  • arts and architecture 艺术与建筑
  • stagnate 停滞
  • hegemony 霸权
  • mughals 莫卧儿人
  • subcontinent 次大陆
  • confederacy 联盟
  • humanism 人道主义
  • potent weapon 有力的武器
  • heresy 异端
  • Ottomans 奥斯曼人
  • inquisition 审问,宗教裁判所
  • prosecute 起诉
  • judizing and blasphemy 审判和亵渎
  • militaristic and imperialist 军国主义和帝国主义
  • stark increase 明显增加
  • endeavors 努力 effort, strive
  • ravging waters 肆虐的水域
  • bandit 土匪
  • exiled 被流放
  • executed 被处决
  • pursue economic interests
  • financial toll 财务损失
  • death toll 死亡人数
  • toll 收费
  • liberty, equality, fraternity 自由、平等、博爱(法国大革命的理念之一)
  • lead 铅(白色)
  • arsenic poisoning 砷(绿色)中毒
  • uranium 铀(红色)
  • moral dilemmas 道德困境
  • retaliate 报复
  • defeat n./v. 打败
  • subjugating v. 征服
  • surrender 投降
  • Allies 盟国
  • adversary 对手
  • citizenship 国籍,公民权
  • helots: Helots were responsible for agricultural duties and other day-to-day tasks that supported the Spartans.
  • combat: to fight
  • hostile: confrontational or unfriendly.
  • quarrel: to dispute or argue.
  • treaty: official agreement between groups of people.
  • territory: land an animal, human, or government protects from intruders.
  • Acropolis: large, flat-topped hill that is the highest point of the city of Athens, Greece.
  • aristocracy:elite group of people based on wealth or social status.
  • commerce: trade, or the exchange of goods and services.
  • democracy: system of organization or government where the people decide policies or elect representatives to do so.
  • monarchy: system of government in which national power is invested in one person, usually a king or queen.
  • aesthetics 美学 study of beauty
  • dedicate: to sincerely devote time and effort to something.
  • democracy: system of organization or government where the people decide policies or elect representatives to do so.
  • ethics: beliefs about what is right and wrong.
  • flourish: 繁荣
  • temple: building used for worship.
  • zoology: the study of animals.
  • taming the wild horse: 驯服野马
  • prominent: He came from a prominent family in Athens.
  • corpus: 语料库
  • oath 誓言
  • statesman 政治家
  • voting: Voters in Arlington, Virginia, cast ballots in a presidential election.
  • ratified: The United States Constitution was ratified in 1789 and outlines a framework for the national government. It is the supreme law of the United States.
  • Congress: legislative branch of the government, responsible for making laws. The U.S. Congress has two bodies, the House of Representatives and the Senate.
  • constitution 宪法
  • democratic: having to do with a government led by its citizens, who vote for policies and/or representatives.
  • Electoral College: electors representing all 50 states and the District of Columbia, responsible for officially electing the President and Vice-President of the United States.
  • ethics: beliefs about what is right and wrong.
  • felony: serious crime with punishment including imprisonment or death.
  • human rights: basic freedoms belonging to every individual, including the rights to social and political expression, spirituality, and opportunity.
  • invader: organism that enters an area to take control of it.
  • jury: group of people selected to determine facts in a specific case.
  • philosophy: the study of the basic principles of knowledge.
  • proponent: supporter or advocate of something.
  • representative: someone or something who acts in place of a group of people.
  • urban: having to do with city life.
  • tenet: a principle or belief, especially one of the main principles of a religion or philosophy.
  • exercised: In the case of the United States, that power is exercised indirectly, through elected representatives.
  • Still other languages die out due to political oppression or** social assimilation**.
  • lineage: line of descendants of a particular ancestor.
  • linguist: person who studies language.
  • linguistics: study of language.
  • origin: source or ancestry.
  • tribe: community made of one or several family groups sharing a common culture.
  • protolanguage 原始语言
  • military mutinies 军事叛变
  • pasant 农民起义
  • worker strikes 工人罢工
  • monarch(ruler, emperor): 君主,国王
  • surrender v. 投降
  • social upheaval 社会剧变
  • spice trade 香料贸易
  • stalemate 僵局
  • mobilizing the people 动员人们
  • aftermath 后果
  • doctrine 主义
  • Zen 禅
  • Zionism 犹太复国
  • ziggurat 巴比伦的金字塔
  • welfare state 福利国家
  • Warsaw Pact
  • unconditional surrender 无条件投降
  • utopian socialists
  • vassal 地主(诸侯)
  • vernacular 白话,行话
  • viceroy 总督
  • tyranny: rule by a tyrant
  • tribute system 进贡系统
  • trench warfare 壕沟战
  • entrenched 固定的
  • tithe 十分之一的税(宗教收取)
  • three obediences
  • three-field system 休耕制度
  • fallow 休耕
  • theocracy 神权统治
  • social Darwinism 社会达尔文主义
  • socratic method 苏格拉底式方法,问答式教学方法
  • sophists 诡辩家,博学家
  • sublime porte 奥斯曼帝国时期的宫殿
  • suffrage: 选举权 the right to vote(女性,黑人)
  • stoicism: 接受命运,放弃欲望
  • shogunate system: 幕府制度
  • Rococo: style 哥特式,巴洛克,洛可可
  • reparation 赔款
  • Renaissance 文艺复兴(1350-1550):弱化宗教,回归希腊文化
  • 第一次工业革命 1750
  • 美国建国 1776
  • scholar-gentry 大学士
  • satyagraha 非暴力反抗运动
  • proletariat 物产阶级
  • predestination 之前就决定了命运
  • lot 命运
  • primogeniture 长子继承制
  • popular sovereignty
  • portolani 港口和土地
  • pantheism 泛神论
  • patriarchal family
  • patriarchy
  • Pax Romana
  • obsidian: a kind of volcanic glass was used to make sharp blades
  • grinding flour 磨粉
  • mill n./v. 磨坊,磨
  • bronze: an alloy mixture of copper and tin making it more durable
  • stockpiling: 大量储备
  • taming the rivers 治理河流
  • tame 驯服
  • harapan phase 哈拉帕期
  • dagger 匕首🗡️
  • fighting and bloodshed 战斗和流血
  • drainage system 排水系统
  • traits 特点
  • egalitarian 平等主义
  • pictographs 象形字
  • cramped and crowded 拥挤拥挤
  • collapsed 倒塌
  • pastoralist 牧民
  • peasants 农民
  • iron plow 铁犁
  • oligarchic 寡头政治的
  • satrap 总督
  • dowry 嫁妆
  • brahmin 婆罗门
  • remnant 残余
  • epics 史诗
  • clans 氏族
  • battles and bloodshed 战斗和流血
  • spears 矛
  • hellenized 希腊化的
  • screw 螺旋桨 Archimedes
  • hedonism and physical pleasure 享乐主义和身体愉悦
  • happiness was the main goal of life
  • ritual 仪式
  • majestic buildings 雄伟的建筑
  • envious 羡慕
  • magistrates 地方法官
  • brigade 旅
  • annex 吞并(territories)
  • homo sapiens 智人
  • uncivilized savages 未开化的野蛮人
  • inclusive:包容性(culture)
  • advance this claim 提出这个主张
  • UNESCO 联合国教科文组织
  • crops 农作物
  • disenfranchise 剥夺公民权
  • epic adventures 史诗冒险
  • condemn 谴责
  • Native Americans are entitled to their land 美洲原住民有权拥有他们的土地
  • truce 休战
  • retaliate 报复
  • assault 进攻
  • acropolis 卫城 large, flat-topped hill that is the highest point of the city of Athens, Greece.
  • aesthetics: study of beauty. 美学
  • flourish:to thrive or be successful.
  • personal salvation 个人救赎
  • cast ballots 投票
  • momentous 重大的
  • felony 重罪
  • mines and mills 矿山和工厂
  • ruin, remains of a destroyed building or set of buildings.
  • reservoir, large, concentrated supply or reserve.
  • dike, a barrier, usually a natural or artificial wall used to regulate water levels.
  • beasts of burden, 负重的牲畜
  • chariot 战车
  • tomb 墓
  • Sarcophagi 石棺
  • mummy 木乃伊
  • pharaoh 法老(King of Egypt)
  • eternal 永恒
  • general: highest rank of leadership in armies and air forces.
  • reign 统治
  • revolution 革命,改革
  • cuneiform 楔形文字(美索不达米亚)
  • relegate v. 降级
  • esteem v. 尊重
  • esteemed postions
  • indigenous 当地的,土著的,土的
  • beverage 饮料

Among the most surprising findings was the ubiquity of defensive walls, ramparts, terraces, and fortresses.最令人惊讶的发现是无处不在的防御墙、壁垒、露台和堡垒。

The Greeks are often credited with pioneering a democratic government that went on to influence the structure of the United States.

All Greek city-states had sets of rules by which the people lived in observance and laws they were required to obey.

In the United States today, the rule of law is a principle that ensures that all laws are publicly accessible, equally enforced, and independently judged, and that they adhere to international human rights ethics.

Trade and Colonization 贸易和殖民

  • shipbuilding
  • curved hull 弯曲船体
  • extensive trade networks
  • branching out
  • search for commodities and raw materials
  • permanent settlements
  • market
  • manufactured goods
  • colonies and cities in their own right
  • shipwreck n/v 沉船;海难;船舶失事;失事的船(可以分析当时船上的货物,贸易)
  • goods and raw materials
  • ingots of copper and tin 铜锭和锡锭
  • wine and oil in storage vessels
  • silver and gold jewellery 金银首饰
  • faience objects 彩陶物体
  • glass 玻璃
  • textiles 纺织品
  • papyrus 纸莎草
  • wood 木材
  • wool 羊毛
  • spices 香料
  • pottery 陶器
  • food 食物
  • slaves 奴隶
  • Tyrian purple(purple dye) 泰尔紫,紫色染料(Phoenicians,south of Mediterranean Sea)
  • Greek Fire 希腊火(north of Mediterranean Sea)
  • metalwork 金工
  • ivory work 象牙制品


  • Fertile Crescent 新月沃地
  • Mesopotamia, mostly located in modern-day Iraq, defined by the alluvial plain of the rivers Euphrates and Tigris
  • food sources
  • sow 播种
  • grain 粮食
  • cereals 谷类
  • plow 犁地
  • crop 庄稼
  • manpower 人力,人手
  • shacks 棚屋
  • threshed 脱粒
  • regional crop yields
  • annual rainfall or irrigation variation
  • drought or flooding 干旱或洪水
  • precipitation 降水
  • underwent 遭受,经历
  • canals 运河
  • reservoir 水库
  • arid climate 干旱气候
  • floodplains 洪涝平原
  • dry up, harden, and crack
  • arable 可耕种
  • oxen 牛
  • sickles with flint blades 带燧石刀片的镰刀
  • paddles 桨
  • threshing 脱粒
  • millennium 千年
  • crop rotation: left fields fallow to maintain the fertility of the ground
  • manure 肥料
  • millet 小米
  • wheat 小麦
  • emmer 二粒小麦
  • Rye and oats 黑麦和燕麦
  • salt-tolerant
  • barley 大麦
  • sesame 芝麻
  • Olive oil
  • linen cloth 亚麻布
  • wool 羊毛
  • Figs, pomegranate, apple, and pistachio groves 无花果、石榴、苹果和开心果林
  • onions, garlic, and cucumbers 洋葱、大蒜和黄瓜
  • palm trees 棕榈树
  • granaries 粮仓
  • mongooses
  • palace and temples 宫殿和寺庙
  • perishable 易腐烂的
  • a long shelf-life 长保质期
  • 饥荒

After threshing, the grain was separated from the chaff by winnowing, which was only possible in windy weather. In the granaries, mongooses were used to protect the store from mice (more so than cats, which were deemed unreliable).

There were two types of agriculture:

  • Dry agriculture without irrigation, where people mostly cultivated cereals and relied on rainfall, which was primarily practiced in the hill country of upper Mesopotamia and the Levant.
  • Irrigation agriculture, which was centered in the alluvial plains of Lower Mesopotamia.

It is thanks to agriculture and the abundance of cereals that the great city-states and empires of Mesopotamia were able to rise. Supporting a large-scale urban population and the division of labor into specialized trades was only possible by moving away from subsistence farming to an organized agricultural system that provided enough surplus to feed a large non-farming population. In that sense, agriculture laid the foundation for civilization.

Social Hierarchy 社会等级制度

  • king and nobility 国王和贵族
  • priests and priestesses 牧师
  • upper class
  • lower class
  • slaves


  • empires 帝国


  • sacked and destroyed by … 被摧毁
  • kingdom 王朝
  • campaigns and conquests 战役和征服
  • holding dominance
  • remained in their shadow
  • invade 入侵
  • assimilate 吸收
  • slowly gaining power 慢慢获得力量
  • vassal state 属国
  • expansion 扩张
  • rebellion 反叛
  • he sacked Babylon, desecrated and sacked their temples 他洗劫了巴比伦,亵渎并洗劫了他们的神庙
  • take the throne 夺取王位
  • throne 王座
  • ruthless and cruelty 无情和残酷
  • reign 统治
  • subjugate 征服
  • in subjugating a significant amount of territory
  • conquer 征服
  • collapse 崩溃,坍塌
  • invincible 无敌的
  • regime 政权
  • siege warfare,攻城战
  • from the rise of … in 983 BCE to the downfall of … in 673 BCE

Language and Writing

  • Phoenician alphabet(英语和阿拉伯语的基础,英语中的24个字母来自腓尼基字母表)
  • cuneiform 楔形文字
  • pictograph 象形文字
  • biblical tales 圣经的故事

Writing was invented around c. 3600 BCE, most likely in response to long-distance trade which required some means of communication between manufacturer, seller, buyer, and distributor. The writing system, as noted, was known as cuneiform, which developed from simple pictographs. These images could only relay the subject of a message, however, such as beer (the most popular drink in Mesopotamia and another Sumerian invention), but not whether the beer was coming or going from a given destination. Writing allowed people to specify their messages regarding quantity, quality, and whether an item was being bought, sold, or intended for sacrifice at the temple. The Alulu beer receipt from the city of Ur in 2050 BCE is among the best examples of the commercial aspect of writing as it acknowledges the delivery of a quantity of beer to the buyer from the brewer, Alulu. In time, as cuneiform became more sophisticated, it was used to record laws, recipes, prayers, hymns, stories, legends, and epics such as the tale of Gilgamesh. It also encouraged the development of different genres such as Mesopotamian Naru Literature, which served to both entertain and encourage important cultural values.

cylinder seal and stamp seals

Mesopotamian Inventions

  • The wheel 车轮(The wheel was invented c. 3500 BCE for the production of ceramics )
  • Mass-produced ceramics 批量生产的陶瓷
  • Mathematics(dividing land, creation of irrigation canals)
  • Time
  • Writing
  • Cylinder seals and envelopes 圆柱印章
  • Mass-produced bricks
  • Cities
  • The map
  • The sail 帆船
  • carts and wagons 推车和马车
  • 24 hours and each hour with 60 minutes


  • Sail 帆船
  • carts and wagons 推车和马车

Such trade was made possible by the development of astronomy, which charted the stars and provided identifiable reference points in the night sky for travel.

Religions and Gods 宗教和神

  • god 神
  • patheon A pantheon , from Greek πάνθεον pantheon, literally “(a temple) of all gods” 所有神
  • deity 神
  • sacred 神圣的
  • worship 崇拜,朝拜
  • adept at interpreting signs and omens 善于解读符号和预兆
  • temple 庙
  • ceremony 仪式
  • pray 祈祷
  • prayer 祷文,祷词;祈祷,祷告;祈祷仪式
  • incense burning 烧香
  • libation pouring 奠酒
  • enigmatic sites 神秘的地点
  • site 地点
  • worship v/n 崇拜
  • god/idols/deity/holy 神 偶像
  • divine 神的
  • sacred 神圣的
  • holy book: Bible/Koran
  • religious shrine 宗教圣地
  • pilgrimage 朝圣
  • sorcery and witchcraft 巫术和巫术
  • healer 治愈者
  • officiating at ceremonies 主持仪式



  • Hinduism 印度教(教你脱离苦海,通过提升种姓阶级)
  • Buddhism 佛教(教你脱离苦海,通过觉悟成佛;痛苦的来源,欲望)
  • enlightenment 开悟(buddhism),佛教的最终目的
  • ganges river 恒河
  • Buddha 佛教徒
  • egalitarian society 平等社会(佛教)


  • Koran 古兰经
  • muhammad 穆罕默德(受真主的委托传教)
  • Allah 真主(伊斯兰上帝)
  • pilgrimage 朝圣
  • pilgrims 朝圣者
  • Muslim 穆斯林(信仰伊斯兰教的人)
  • 麦加
  • 麦地那
  • 耶路撒冷


  • New Testament 新约


  • 耶路撒冷


The Ancient World


The Roman legion(军团) was considered to be the best infantry.

Rome’s debt to Greece was enormous.

In speculative philosophy and the sciences, the Romans made virtually no advance on early achievements. 在推理哲学和科学上,罗马人实际上没有超过前期希腊的成就。

This allowed the legion to outmaneuver(智取), surround, and destroy an enemy much faster than a similarly sized Greek army could.

The three Punic Wars were fought over many years and involved Rome and Carthage. The two fought for supremacy in the west, and the wars ended with the complete defeat of Carthage by Rome.
三场布匿战争持续多年,涉及罗马和迦太基。 两人争夺西方霸权,战争以迦太基被罗马彻底击败而告终。

The Church leader in Rome is the pope and that in Constantinople is the patriarch.

Justinian is remembered as the greatest Byzantine emperor because of his codification(法典编纂) of the law.

The Five Pillars of Islam are: (1) the statement of faith, (2) the obligation to pray five times daily, (3) the giving of alms to the poor, (4) the requirement to fast during the month of Ramadan, and (5) the requirement to make a pilgrimage to Mecca at least once during one’s lifetime.

A German mapmaker named the New World America in honor of Amerigo Vespucci, who is credited with being the first to realize that Columbus had actually found a previously unknown land.

Building small walls as deterrent. 威慑

The Han was plagued by many problems leading to sharp decline.

A civilization went into decline.