Art History

艺术历史

听力都记录下来就没太大问题。按照大意和文章脉络,关键点,But转折,小细节。

艺术讨论的问题

  • 艺术作品强调作者个人的风格,艺术家都会借鉴其他人的作品。
  • 艺术作品的特点和风格以及形成的原因。
  • 艺术作品形成某种风格的原因,绘画技术(颜料)发展。
  • 该艺术家的技术特点,2个小细节
  • 艺术家的职业生涯环境,新技术对她的职业的影响
  • 开始不受欢迎,晚期或者过世多年,作品才重新收到认识。
  • 艺术家的观点会如何通过她的作品体现出来?
  • 2个小细节,证明艺术家在当时的地位很高
  • 教授对某种艺术风格,某个人,有自己的看法
  • 其他艺术作品或风格,对这个艺术家的影响,以及体现在什么方面?

Hierarchy of Art Genres

  • history and religious
  • Genre Scences
  • Portraits
  • Landscape
  • Still-life

Words

  • personification 拟人化
  • patrons: a person who gives financial or other support to a person, organization, or cause.
  • forgery: 伪造品,赝品。the action of forging a copy or imitation of a document, signature, banknote, or work of art.
  • date a painting: 确定画的年代
  • portrait n. 肖像
  • realism: 现实主义,what it is, accurate, objective as possible
  • expressionism: artist express subject. subjective emotions, showing the inner reality as interpreted by the artist rather than the outward form.
  • portray v. 描绘
  • statue 雕像,雕塑
  • bronze n. 青铜
  • choir 合唱团
  • stencil painting 塑模画,模版
  • Cave art 岩洞艺术
  • lit 发光的 点亮
  • tress 头发,编头发或绳子
  • Museum curators 博物馆展览组织者
  • pigment 颜料
  • heroism, divinity, or youth. 英雄主义、神性或青春
  • marble statues 大理石雕像
  • monochrome 单色
  • polychrome 多色
  • disintegrate 瓦解
  • pigment 颜料
  • weathered away 风化了
  • deteriorate 褪色,退化
  • exposed to the elements 暴露在自然环境中
  • accidentally: unknowingly
  • armor 盔甲
  • cloak 披风
  • battlefield 战场
  • nursery 苗圃,幼儿园
  • formal analysis of a painting 一幅画的形式分析
  • color, texture, line, shapes, proportion, and composition
  • what aspects are emphasized
  • an abstract representation of something
  • harsh lines or soft lines
  • nterpretation of the work
  • self-contained: (of a person) quiet and independent; not depending on or influenced by others.
  • realistic impressionism
  • restoring and preserving pieces of art 修复和保存艺术品
  • stretchy figures
  • poetry 诗歌,诗集
  • soprano 女高音
  • lace 蕾丝
  • palimpsest

艺术类文章

Word

  • brushstroke 一笔

文章结构

  • 艺术家是谁
  • 有什么样的风格
  • 通过什么样的技巧展现他的风格
  • 最后对艺术家的生平进行一定的介绍,说明他为什么会产生这样的风格

出题点

  • 艺术家
  • 风格特征
  • 体现风格的方式
  • 生平背景

画家展示自己风格的方式

颜色,线条,形状。

Articles

Art Conservation - a Palimpsest of Archimedes’ writing

Vocabularies:

  • restoring and preserving pieces of art 修复和保存艺术品
  • frescoes 壁画
  • artifacts 文物
  • palimpsest 重写本
  • commonplace vs revolutionary
  • moldy
  • decay
  • forger 铁匠;伪造者
  • scribe
  • spinach 菠菜(has iron)
  • interdisciplinary 交叉学科

Summary:

Old artifacts are very valuable when they represent early technologies, all contain important historical information.

Not much of his work has survived, but what has survived is brilliant.

Now, a palimpsest is a type of manuscript that contains writing that’s hidden because something else was written over it later.

It could have ended up tucked away in a private collection, but fortunately, the collector who bought it has agreed to have experts restore every single word Archimedes wrote, so the contents can be shared with the world and studied.

There were still faint traces of Archimedes’ words on the pages.

He was reading an article about problems with the palimpsest and it said that there is iron in the original Archimedes’ ink.

The professor told a story about how the texts of a palimpsest of Archimedes’ writing were recovered. The ink Archimede used was made from spinach, which contains iron. If X-rays were spotted on the writing, a special light would be emitted from the original writing and diagram.

Art history class: Alice Neel painted portraits(100%)

She experienced difficulties as an artist, because of photography.

After photography became regarded as an art form, portrait painting became less prestigious, less respected as an art form.

And, well, art photography kind of took its place, so you can imagine that a portrait artist, would have had a hard time finding acceptance.

Her paintings’ chracteristic was the combination of realism and expressionism. In her paintings, bold color was used to paint special faces, and the body was streched.

But Neel wasn’t satisfied with photo-like realism, she went beyond that.

She believed in capturing the whole person, not just what was on the surface, that’s where the expressionists’ distortion is important, in an attempt to reveal the subjects’ character or personality.

Remember I said that photography and art photography had largely taken the place of portraiture, to the extent that some critics had declared the genre of portraiture to be dead.

But Neel felt that painting should reflect reality, a real realist’s stance you could say.

And to her, individuals, people best reflect the reality of their time, of the age that they lived in, so she painted portraits.

Questions:

What aspect of Alice Neel’s work does the class mainly discuss?
C. The style she used to portray her subjects.

What point does the professor make about photography and portraiture in the twentieth century?
B. Photography largely replaced the tradition of portrait painting.

According to the professor, what two aspects of Neel’s work are characteristic of Expressionism? Click on 2 answers.

  • C. The shape of the subjects’ bodies.
  • D. The use of color in the paintings.

According to the professor, why did Neel paint portraits?
A. She felt that it was the best way to represent a time period.

Why does the professor discuss the variety of people in Neel’s portraits?
D. To emphasize a distinctive feature of Neel’s body of work.

Portrait Artists and Portraiture: Cecilia Beaux

Words:

  • prestige 声望
  • well-known and successful
  • stand out 突出(成绩)

Sentences:

Cecilia Beaux was born in 1854, and after learning to paint and studying with several important artists of the time, Beaux became known as one of the best portrait painters in the United States.

her subjects were …

she really stood out back in the 1800s.

And today, she is still considered one of the greatest portrait painters of her time, male or female

Well, artists have done portraits of people for centuries, of famous people and regular people, and most portraits convey the artists’ um… personal vision, like their feelings and insights about a person, like their feelings and insights about a person.

Great, that’s a crucial point, and I’d like to explore that a little today.

personal vision, like their feelings and insights about a person.

In fact, she was the first full-time female instructor at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, and she was a full member of the National Academy of Design.

These are pretty important institutions, so, yeah, she definitely made headway for women artists.

So tell me what’s the first thing that draws you to this painting? 那么请告诉我这幅画最吸引你的是什么?

What catches your eye first? 什么首先引起您的注意?

Besides her excellent technical skills, like her use of brush strokes and color to make an impression, both respectives come through.

Now, the undefined background also shows how Cecilia Beaux was influenced by the French Impressionists, who believed, like Beaux, in a personal rather than conventional approach to their subject matter.

Beaux used some impressionist techniques and share much of their philosophy, but her style, it was all her own.

Statue of Greek vs Statue of Rmoman

Greeek statues were more calm and detached more idealized version of the human body, whild the Romans had a more natural style depicting more realistic facial features and emotions.

Archimedes’ Palimpsest 阿基米德的重写本

He realized that the iron in the ancient ink would display if exposed to a certain X-ray imaging method, and except for small portions of the text that couldn’t be deciphered, this technique’s been very helpful in seeing Archimedes’ texts and drawings through the medieval over writing .

  • parchment 羊皮纸
  • papyrus scrolls 纸莎草卷轴