• melodies and rhythms 旋律和节奏
  • staff 五线谱(america)
  • stave 五线谱(english)
  • pitch: 音高,ABCDEFG
  • octave 八度;一个人用高音和另一个人用低音唱同一首曲子,不会不和谐; Oct表示八
  • hallmark 标志
  • grandeur 宏伟
  • mention 提到
  • nationalism 民族主义
  • long and lyrical 又长又抒情
  • chant 咏叹
  • semitone 半音(白键到黑键)
  • tone:两个白键之间(中间没有黑)
  • minor second: 半音高一个
  • major second: 全音高一个
  • scale: 12345671(TTSTTTS)
  • garment 服装
  • recitals 独奏会
  • adore 崇拜
  • modern 现代的
  • denounced 斥责
  • acrobatics 杂技
  • complicated and excruciating mechanism 复杂而痛苦的机制
  • tunics 长袍
  • Piece: a song or some kind of music
  • Baroque Period: a period known for its lively and complicated music.
  • Romantic Period: a period known for tis music with strong emotions.
  • composer: a person who writes music
  • Classical Period: a period known for its lighter and less complicated music.

The Western Musical Tradition

Baroque Period(1600-1750):

  • operas, oratorios and passions, complicated and difficult to play, liveliness.
  • There was often an emphasis on religious music.
  • Both Bach and Handel are well known for their music with religious themes.

Classical Period(1750-1825):

  • Famous composers: Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Joseph Haydn, Ludwig van Beethoven
  • shorter music

Romantic Period(1815-1910):

  • often expressed strong emotions, making them passionate
  • Fantasy and imagination
  • more intruments were added to the orchestras
  • Famous composers: Franz Schubert, Robert Schumann, Frederic Chopin

Musical instruments

  • bells and gongs 钟和锣
  • voilin

Piano: A versatile instrument with a wide range of notes, played by pressing keys that strike strings.

Guitar: A stringed instrument with a body and a neck, played by plucking or strumming the strings.

Violin: A stringed instrument played with a bow, consisting of four strings and a hollow wooden body.

Drums(鼓): Percussion instruments played by striking or hitting with sticks, hands, or mallets.

Flute(长笛): A wind instrument played by blowing across a hole in the side, producing sound through vibrations.

Saxophone: A woodwind instrument with a curved metal body and a reed mouthpiece, played by blowing air through a reed.

Trumpet(喇叭): A brass instrument with valves, played by buzzing the lips into a cup-shaped mouthpiece.

Clarinet(单簧管): A woodwind instrument with a single-reed mouthpiece, played by blowing air through the reed.

Electric guitar(电吉他): Similar to a regular guitar, but with the ability to be amplified electronically.

Bass guitar(低音吉他): A stringed instrument similar to a guitar but with a longer neck and lower pitch range.

Cello(大提琴): A large stringed instrument played with a bow, held between the knees.

Drum kit(架子鼓): A collection of drums and cymbals played by a drummer using sticks and pedals.

Keyboard: A versatile instrument that replicates the sound of various instruments and can be played with both hands.

Harp(Harp): A stringed instrument with a triangular frame and strings of varying lengths played by plucking.

Accordion(手风琴): A handheld instrument with bellows and a keyboard, played by squeezing and expanding the bellows while pressing keys or buttons.

Classical Music

Some famous classical music composers

  • George Frederic Handel was one of the greatest composers of the Baroque Period
  • Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart was a child genius from the Classical Period
  • Franz Schubert was one of the most famous composers of the Romantic Period.


Music was governed by rules, mathematical rules. and for the Greeks, the same mathematical principles that govern music also govern the universe as well as the human character, the essence of personality.

I just finished reviewing your papers on the influence of nationalism on the composers’ music.

He was a wonderful and ground-breaking(开创性) composer.

Bela Bartok was a Hungarian, whose life stretched from the late nineteenth century to the middle of twentieth century.

stretch can used on land, or time. America stretches from Canada to Mexico.

But he was not a fan of the Romantic style of music that was popular in his homeland during his youth.

So during Bartok’s youth, the music played in the concert halls of Austria-Hungary was dominated by Romantic pieces by mostly German composers.

These pieces were long and lyrical. 这些作品又长又抒情。

but she quickly developed her own unique style.