Vocabulary: Small Verbs and Movements



Sense: taste/taste, touch/feel, smell, hear/sound or see/look.

Perception: seem,appear

English Word Chinese Meaning
spit 吐出/喷
chew 咀嚼
leap 跳跃
throw 投掷
wrestling 摔跤
grab 抓住
grasp 抓住
sieze 抓住
squirt 喷射
glide 滑行
shoot 发射
stuck 卡住
rub 摩擦
spot 看,鸟从高空看
Dance 跳舞
Swim 游泳
Crawl 爬行
Punch 击打
Catch 抓住
Shake 摇动
Wave 挥手
Twist 扭转
Turn 转动
Lift 抬起
Drop 放下
Bend 弯曲
Stretch 伸展
Squeeze 挤压
Wink 眨眼
Nod 点头
Blink 眨眼
Hop 单脚跳
Skip 跳跃
Roll 滚动
scratch 抓/挠/划
swoop 猛扑
claw 爪子,抓
Grip 紧握
pierce 刺穿
spin 旋转
scream 尖叫
puff 吹;阵风,一吹
Skim 浏览
slam 猛撞(批评)
dizzy 眼花的
lit 点亮,发光的
rub 摩擦;robber橡皮
nibble 蚕食,轻咬
locomotion n. 移动,运动
tile n/v 瓦片,铺瓦
thaw v 解冻,融化
shed v 掉,流出,棚子
pour v 倒
stir 搅拌
clogge 堵塞
sever cut off 切下,(使)断裂,割断;断绝(关系、联系等)
choke 窒息,噎住,卡住;choking with sth.

Onomatopoeia 拟声词


English Word Chinese Meaning
Sizzling 嘶嘶声(油煎时)
Splatter 溅泼
Crackling 噼啪声
Plop 噗嗵声 - 豆子落入碗中
Chop 劈,砍
Slice 切片
Crunchy 松脆的
Ping 砰声
Slurp 咕噜声
Munch 大声咀嚼
Sprinkle 撒, 洒, 喷
Chomp 狠咬
Gulp 痛快地喝一口
grapple 扭打
peel 剥皮
slide 滑动 ppt
stetch 拉伸
switch 开关,转换
bounce 反弹
clip 夹子,剪辑,回形针
strip 剥离

I screamed with shock and anger when I saw the mess he’d made of the kitchen.


Only sporadic fighting was reported elsewhere in the city, where government forces have been battling to halt a rebel offensive.

表示,意味着, to denote, to mean, sign that something is true.
The red coat he is wearing denoted he is in important position.




promote/prompt 促进推动

propel 推进,push,drive

imprint 铭记,印记


抱怨 complain


propose 建议,计划

replenish vt 添加,补充(supplement), to fill again
After eating all the cookies, she had to replenish the cookie jar by baking more.

scurry v 急跑(rush/dash)

simulate 模仿,模拟(often intent to decieve), (the look of…, environment) to make sth similar to the original.

emulate: to try to match or beat something in qualities or actions, to rival, 努力赶上, 消防

Sons are traditionally expected to emulate their fathers. emulate the success of …

substantiate vt. verify 证实, to prove the truth of something.
How do you plan to substantiate your right to inherit the billionaire’s fortune?

trace vt 探索,痕迹,微量

alleviate 减轻,缓和(relieve)

desire v. 想要,渴望,愿望,欲望

deserve 值得,应得

distinguish 区别,出名,辨别

improvise vt. 即兴创作,临时准备(不提前看)π

rescue 营救,save

rupture 破裂,断绝

break 破坏

blush 脸红

clog 阻碍,阻塞

converge 汇聚,聚合 of a sequence, to have a limit, Of two or more entities, to approach each other, to get closer and closer.

cost 成本花费

curl 卷

detest v. hate 憎恶

expect 预期,期望,anticipate

remodel 改造,重新塑造

tender 温柔的,软的,给予,投标

transcend 超越

administer 管理,执行

apologize 道歉

bind 结合,绑定

construct 建造

detect 发现,察觉,探测

determin 决定

disseminate 散步传播

extend 延长

fasten 系紧

hatch 孵化

omit 省略

prefer 更喜欢


saturate 使充满,浸透(fill, soak)

rust 锈,生锈,使变迟钝

screen 审查

suspect 怀疑

summarize 概括,总结

underscore 强调

tolerate 忍受

afford 买得起,冒险做,提供

accredit 授权

access n/v 存取,使用,接近

afford vt 买得起,冒险做,提供

dehydrate vt 使脱水

despoil v. pillage,夺取,掠夺, to make a place less attractive especially by taking things away from it by force

engulf v. 吞没

illuminate 照亮lighten

implement 执行,实施

mock 嘲笑

postpone 推迟 延期

seep 漏出,渗漏

skip 跳

slip 滑

slice 切片

strain 张力 stress and strain

surge 汹涌奔腾,猛涨,澎湃

consume 消费

distribute v. 分配,发布

entitle 使有权; to give a legal right or claim to something; to give a particular title to something.
to prove the entitlement of my client to the property 证明我的客户有权获得该房产
My client is entitled to this property.(to give a legal right or claim to something)
This painting has been entitled appropriately.(to give a particular title to something)

fulfill v 履行,符合

hamper v. 妨碍 to delay progress; n. basket(Gift Hamper 礼物篮子)
Bad weather will hamper the rescue efforts.
The current situation will continue to hamper students to go to schools.

synonym: prevent; antonym: promote

Convince 说服
Did you convince Kevin to come to the party.

narrate 叙述

notion 观念,想法,概念




populate 居住于 dwell, inhabit, live, be an inhabitant of or reside in, fill with inhabitants

proofread 校对,校正revise

incinerate 焚化;烧成灰

wane 衰退,decline gradually;ebb
interest in the project waned.

acknowledge 承认,确认

applaud 鼓掌,喝彩

absorb 吸收(take in, engage)

carve 雕刻

confer 授予,赋予;商讨,交换意见,fer-take

He wanted to confer with his colleagues before reaching a decision.

enact: 颁布 put sth. into action, particularly a law. enact a ban, enact a policy. enact a plan/rule/policy

dictate 规定,决定,命令,口述,指示

emit 发射

ferment 发酵

exhaust v. 排放,耗尽 n.排气管

insult 凌辱,侮辱

pave 铺路 pave the way

rehearse 排练

resist 抵抗

revolt 反叛,起义

segregate 分割,隔离

thrive 茂盛,茁壮成长

yield 生产

announce 宣布

proclaim 宣布

commit 承诺,负责,犯错



depict 描述,描绘

guarantee 保证



ooze 渗出 leak seep

refurbish 重新装饰

remind 提醒

spark 火花,激发

resume 恢复

strip 剥夺,条状

stun 使晕倒

stunt 阻碍

thwart 阻碍 baffle, frustrate

vary v. 变化,改变

wither 枯萎,衰退

comply 遵守

comprise 服从

conceal 包含

conduct 隐蔽,隐瞒

crumple v. 弄皱

diagnose 诊断

dilate 膨胀扩大

generalize 概括

veil 隐藏 n. 面纱

unveil 揭开面纱

unravel: : to disengage or separate the threads of

acclaim 欢呼

coincide 巧合

comprehensive 全面的,综合的

involve 牵涉,包含

tame 驯服

convey 输送,传达

devise 设计,发明

dilute 稀释,淡化

impose 强加,征税

incinerate 焚化

inhibit 阻碍,抑制

forfeit 弃权;n. 罚款

fortify 使强壮,加强

wither 枯萎

comment, comply, comprise, conceal, conduct 评论、遵守、包含、隐瞒、行为

comment on sth.

comply the rules.

The book is comprised of 12 chapters. Older people comprise a large proportion of those living in poverty.

conceal 隐藏

A is concealed under B.

conduct an experiment.

crumple 压垮

dilate 扩张
Red wine can help to dilate blood vessels. 红葡萄酒有助于扩张血管。 The lungs dilate in breathing. 呼吸时肺部扩张。

At night, the pupils dilate to allow in more light. 晚上,瞳孔放大以便让更多的光线射入。

generalize 概括,归纳,一般化,推广,普及;笼统地表达

  • entangle 使纠缠;卷入;使混乱
  • tangle (使)纠结,(使)缠结

extrapolate 推断

Execrate 恨,hate

suspect 怀疑,推测

suspicion 怀疑

postulated 推测(suppose)

sketch 速写,素描,草图

disguise 伪装

deprecate 弃用,抨击,藐视

incite 鼓动,煽动 foment, stir up, instigate

deem 认为 = think

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purge 清除,净化

tease 取笑,逗弄

comprehend 理解,领会

scrub 擦洗; to scrub the floor

trample 踩踏

posit 断定

shatter 粉碎

secret 分泌

trigger 引发,诱发,导致

boost 提高

convict 定罪,宣判……有罪;n. 已决犯,服刑囚犯

calm v. 使平静; n. 平静

derive 获得,取得;起源于,来自;提取,衍生(化学物质)

domesticate 驯养;教化;引进

drag 拉,拖动 pull, move, haul

haul (用力)拖,拉;强迫(某人)去某处;费力前进,艰难地走;<非正式>迫使(某人)出庭受审;(用运载工具)运送,运输;<英>(费力地)升级;(尤指帆船)突然改变航道

For people in cliff dwellings, hauling water, wood, and food to their homes was a major chore(苦差事).

elicit 引出,得到;<古>使(潜在的东西)显现,诱出

These differences may elicit different brain responses. 这些差异可能引起不同的大脑反应。

hide 隐藏

eviscerate 取出内脏;除去精华

lash 猛击,狠打;鞭打,抽打;怒斥,抨击;捆绑,捆扎;煽动,激励;(动物)用力甩动(尾巴)

quantify 量化

recharge 再次充电

lure 吸引,诱惑🫦

require 要求,需要

remark 评论(comment)

sprout 萌芽,长出

transplant 移植

undergo 经历,遭受

assign 指派;分配,布置作业

dismay 使担忧;使失望,使沮丧;使惊恐

defecate vi 排便;澄清

criticize 批评

glaze 上釉

explore 浏览/探索(石油勘探,寻找新资源)

exploit 利用/剥削(石油开发,利用已有资源)

While exploitation focuses on maximizing existing opportunities, exploration is about embracing the unknown and seeking out new possibilities.

confined 限制(在一个区域,限定,被迫的)

churn 搅动

culminate 到达顶峰

etched on 蚀刻在

underpin = support

oversight 监督 过失

windsome 风度翩翩

pressurize 加压(for airplane to remain pressurize all time)

opine 意见

tallying goods 理货

represent 代表,表现,描绘

rekindle 再点火,使再振作

swell 增大,膨胀

strike 敲打

undertake 承担,从事, to do, to guarantee to do, I guarantee you I will do, more formal than carry out. a big job

accelerate 使加快,加速

accumulate 积累 build up, collect

displace 取代,移位

formulate 阐明 制定

gibe 嘲弄

glean 搜集

ignore 忽视

manipulate 操作

portray 描绘

probe 探查

recruit 招募(新兵),征募

simplify 简化

spoil 破坏,变质

stash 藏匿;存放;贮藏

smelt 熔炼,冶炼;精炼

wane 衰弱,退去

suppress: to end something by force

surpass: to do or be better than

tarnish: to make or (especially of metal) become less bright or a different colour; to make people think that someone or something is less good

accuse(accused of): to say that somebody has done something morally wrong, illegal, or unkind.; He’s been accused of robbery/murder. Are you accusing me of lying? The surgeon was accused of negligence.

avoid: to stay away from someone or something; to prevent something from happening or to not allow yourself to do something. Unnecessary paperwork should be avoided.

scour 冲刷;擦;腹泻

evict 驱逐,逐出

When coral become stressted by pollution or other factors, thye evict their alage.

subsist: to get enough food or money to stay alive, but no more

ambush 埋伏, to suddenly attack someone after hiding and waiting for them.

lurk 潜伏

nibble 轻咬 to eat something by taking a lot of small bites

wield: to hold a weapon or tool and look as if you are going to use it

devote(spend energy/time)

to give all of something, especially your time, effort, or love, or yourself, to something you believe in or to a person

He left the Senate to devote more time to his family.

She has devoted all her energies/life to the care of homeless people.

to use a space, area, time, etc. for a particular purpose

Over half his speech was devoted to the issue of unemployment.

discern:(see) to see, recognize, or understand something that is not clear

I could just discern a figure in the darkness.

It is difficult to discern any pattern in these figures.


inspire 鼓舞激励 to make someone feel that they want to do something and can do it

librate 解放

prescribe 开处方

paralyze 使麻痹;

paralyzed person 瘫子

rhyme n/v 韵, 押韵

sow 播种

teeming with: full of … , has many with

This water is teeming with fish.

abound vi. flourish, abundent 丰富

abound with

bustle v/n 忙碌

bloom 花/开花

delay 延迟


embellish 修饰;装饰;润色

depend on(upon) 依靠,依赖


fracture v/n 破裂,折断;瓦解,分裂

hurl n/v 猛扔,猛摔;大声说出

mime/mimic 模仿

pinpoint: to find out or say the exact position in space or time of something


relate 涉及

scan 扫描

slog 艰难前进

happen 碰巧

deplete: use up, exhaust, to reduce something in size or amount, especially supplies of energy, money, etc.

drive 开车,驱赶

garb v/n 服装;装束;打扮

linger 徘徊

refine: improve

proliferate vi 繁殖,激增

roll n/v 卷,滚动,一卷

strap n./v. 条,带,捆扎

synchronize 同步

complement: to make something else seem better or more attractive when combining with it

expel 开除

extract 抽出,抽取

evolve 发展,演进


finalize 使完成,确定下来

fluctuate 波动

glorify: to praise and honour God or a person

jot to make a quick short note of something 草草記下;匆匆記下

germinate 发芽🌱


plunge 掉入 drop, fall; to (cause someone or something to) move or fall suddenly and often a long way forward, down, or into something

repute 被普遍认为,普遍传说(be reputed);知名的,有好名声的(be reputed)

spot 认出,发现,地点,斑点

spin 旋转,纺纱

soothe 使缓和,减轻

impact(on) 影响 affect/effect

irrigate 灌溉

obtain 获得

occur 发生,出现

roma 漫游,漫步

resemble 像。。。

shroud 隐藏 conceal

specify 使具体化

transform 使变形

wear 穿戴

conceive 构思,设想;使受孕,怀孕

deter 阻止

decompose 分解

discard 丢弃

eliminate 消除

exhibit 显示,展出


haul 拖, drag, pull

precipitate 沉淀,cause (an event or situation, typically one that is undesirable) to happen suddenly, unexpectedly, or prematurely.

swamp v. 浸没,吞没 n. 沼泽地

envision v. 预想,想象,设想,期待

For some reason, this hasn’t happened yet as far as I know, but I can easily envision cultivating mushrooms for the sole purpose of detoxifying a large underground ecosystem. 据我了解,因为某些原因,这个方法还没有被采用,但是我能很容易想象得出只是为了去除大的地下水系统中的毒素而培育蘑菇的场景。

permeate 弥漫,渗透

predominate 占优势

admire 钦佩,欣赏

advent 出现,到来,问世;基督降临节(Advent);基督降临,基督复临(Advent)

bound 跳跃

apportion verb 分配,分摊,分发

appreciate 赏识,鉴赏,感激

bump 撞破

characterize 以…为特征

commission 委托,明亮; n. 佣金,回扣

spil over 溢出

decimate 大量毁灭,大批杀死(某地区的动物、植物或人);严重破坏;杀戮;大大削弱

devastate 破坏

endure: to suffer something difficult, unpleasant, or painful

excavate:to remove earth that is covering very old objects buried in the ground in order to discover things about the past

furnish 提供装备

grip - to hold very tightly

imitate: to behave in a similar way to someone or something else, or to copy the speech or behaviour, etc. of someone or something

nurture: to take care of, feed, and protect someone or something, especially young children or plants, and help him, her, or it to develop

operate 运转,开动

perpetuate(一直推) to cause something to continue;per - through, pet - push

pollinate 授粉

snap 折断

deteriorate 变坏

foreshorten 缩短

evoke 唤起

hoe 锄头,锄

frustrate 挫败

groan 呻吟

vanquish 征服

reverberate 使回响;使反射;使弹回

jeopardize 破坏,危及

maintain 维持,保持

refund 退款

rely on 依靠依赖

replace 替换,取代

restore 恢复

spew 喷涌

stagger 1. walk or move unsteadily, as if about to fall. 2. astonish or deeply shock.

adopt 采纳

allude 暗指,影射

amplify 放大

choreograph 设计舞蹈动作

collapse 倒塌,奔溃

contribute 贡献

contain 包含,容纳;遏制,防止……蔓延;抑制(感情)

distort 弄歪,歪曲

handle 处理

imbibe 吸收,接受;喝;吸入(to drink, formal word, most normaly alcohol)

Guzzle: to eat or drind rapidly and greedly

invade 入侵

negate 打消,否定

review 复习,评论

ruin 破坏

synthesize 合成

chew 咀嚼,思量

cram 填塞

collect 收集,聚集


diffuse 传播

disappoint 使失望,使扫兴

assail 纠缠

fabricate 捏造,编造

abolish 废除

replace 替代

oppose 反对

embody 体现,含有
to represent a quality or an idea exactly

She embodied good sportsmanship on the playing field.

foment 煽动 instigate

gonna 要去

intrude 闯入,侵入

mesmerize 使入迷,施催眠术

obsess 迷住

pique 激怒

reside 居住

respect 尊重

solder 焊接

subsidize 补助,资助

swing 摇摆

validate 使有效,使生效

abandon 放弃

beat 打,拍子

codify 编程法典,编辑成书

deprive 使失去,剥夺

deposit 沉淀,堆积

exchange 交换

expand 扩张

incapacitate 使失去能力

gallop 飞奔,疾驰

neglect 忽略,忽视

nominate 提名

replicate 复制 duplicate

supplant 取代

symbolize 象征

acquire 获得

bake 烘烤

coexist 共存

constrain 顾问,法律顾问

demonstrate 论证,表明

enclose 围住

hover 徘徊

impart: to communicate information to someone

I was rather quiet as I didn’t feel I had much wisdom to impart on the subject.

magnify 放大,扩大

lengthen 延长,使变长

perceive 感知,察觉

retain 保持

reverse 反转

sprawl 扩展,蔓延

urge 促进,力劝

withstand 经得住, tolerate, endure

verify 检验,核实

augment 增加,增大

calculate 计算,推测

decorate 装饰

dominate 支配,控制

fascinate 迷住

idealize 理想化

integrate 使成为一体

precede 在…之前

prosper 繁荣,成功

reapply 再申请

repel 驱除,排斥

signify 意味

stir 搅拌

subsist 存活,生存

tangle 混乱,纠缠

wanna 想要

assert 断言,声称

arous 唤醒

advocate 提倡

consider 认为,考虑,体谅,照顾

confine 限制

reflect 反射,反映


steer 驾驶 引导

tarnish 使失去光泽,使变暗淡

tempt 诱使

accompany 陪伴

acquaint 使认识,使熟悉

compose 创作, create/devise/constitute
to produce music, poetry, or formal writing

consort 结交 associate

contradict 反驳

correspond 相符合,相应

descend 遗传 inherit,下降 fall

decrease 减少 deminish, reduce

mediate 调解,调停

participate 参与,参加

perform 表演执行

prize 珍视,估价,奖品

refer 提到,涉及到

sew 缝纫

sharpen 削尖

speculate 推测

squabble 争吵

stress 强调

unify 统一

visualize 想象,形象化

approach 接近

cultivate 培养

gnaw 啃

jumble 混杂

libel 诽谤

maneuver 操纵,策略

outgas 除去…气 to release gases and water in the form of gas from hot, liquid rock into the air

perish 灭亡

ratify 正式批准

recycle 回收利用

respond 回答

revise 修订,修改

teem 充满 teeming with …

abut vi 邻接,毗邻; to lie adjacent to, next to …, adjoin, border on, Abutting

to abut on/upon/against.

The national park abut onto my garden.

anchor 紧固

argue 争论

assemble 集合,装配 gather, fit together; fit together the separate component parts of (a machine or other object). (of people) gather together in one place for a common purpose.

boast 自我夸耀

braid 编织 辫子 (Braid) a thin strip of cloth or twisted threads that is attached to clothes, uniforms, or other things made of cloth, as a decoration

bruise 使受伤;an injury or mark where the skin has not been broken but is darker in colour, often as a result of being hit by something

His arms and back were covered in bruises.

conserve 保存,保藏; retain, preserve

disintegrate 使瓦解,是破裂 collapse/smash

exhale 呼出

inhale 呼入

encounter 偶然碰到

establish 建立

fertilize 使受精

grant 给予,授予

inject 注射

reinforce 加固,加强

polish 磨光,上光剂

restrict 限制,约束

shift 转移,改变

split 分开

squirt 喷出,spout, spurt

thaw 使融化;解冻 melt, defrost

typify 代表;作为……的典型;具有……的特点

accommodate 供应,使适应 conform, adjust to

accustom 使习惯于

afflict 是苦恼,折磨(torture)

analyze 分析,研究

attend 出席,参加

audit 旁听

authorize 授权,批准,许可

belie 给人错觉,掩饰

contaminate 污染

depart 离开

diminish 减小

dispose 除掉,使愿意做

enroll 登记,注册

occupy 占用,占据 take up

recover 恢复

regulate 控制,管理

relieve 减轻

ascribe 分配,分派,指定,指派

assign 分配

avert 避免

blend 混合

chafe 擦热,擦破

classify 分类

combat 格斗,战斗

constitute 组成

creep 爬行

devour 贪婪地吃

entertain 招待,使娱乐

eject 逐出喷出

govern 治理,管理

hum 发嗡嗡声

inquire 打听,询问

navigate 航行,飞行

pursue 追求

recline 依靠

rinse 浣涤

scorch 烤焦

secure 安全

swear 诅咒

subdue 制服,征服

attain 达到

adapt 适合

burrow 挖地洞,洞穴

compensate 赔偿,弥补

concern 涉及,关系到

describe 描述,描写

disrupt 使中断

endow 使天生具有

fumigate 烟熏,用香薰


inhabit 居住

oversleep 睡过头

refrigerate 冷藏,使变冷

reject 拒绝

revert 恢复

revoke 撤销

settle 安定,安顿

squeeze 挤压

stimulate 刺激,激励,激发


allay 减轻, reduce, alleviate

anticipate 预见

assume 假定

declare 表面

demobilize 遣散,使复原


emerge 显露

encase 包住

encompass 包含

generate 产生

gross 总计

hinder 阻碍,妨碍

incorporate 合并,纳入

migrate 迁徙

resolve 解决

rival 与 … 匹敌


advertise 做广告

arrange 安排,不知

blame 谴责

blink 眨眼

blur 使模糊

cancel 取消

concede 承认,让步

deform 使变形

crack 破裂,裂纹

distrub 打扰,扰乱

entail 牵涉

evaluate 评价

evaporate 蒸发

exert 发挥

explode 爆炸

fuse 熔合

fray 磨损



isolate 隔离

originate 起源

pertain to 附属于 to be connected with a particular subject, event, or situation:

rush 冲

scratch 刮

shrivel 使枯萎


supply 提供

survive 幸存

wreck 破坏

confront 面临,对抗

deciper 破译



propagate 繁殖,传播

soak 浸泡


surround 包围

alter 改变

amass 积聚

combine 联合,结合

crush 碾碎

demolish 拆除,破坏

disgust 厌恶

erode 侵蚀

inflate 使充气

leak 泄露

leak 泄漏

mint 铸造

transmit 传输

weave 迂回前进

abbreviate 缩短,缩写

annex 兼并

behave 表现,行为

cite 引用,引证

clarify 澄清

consist 存在于

crisscross 交叉往来

deliver 传送


enhance 增强 increase, improve

leap 跳跃

rejuvenate 使恢复活力

shuffle 洗牌

simmer 慢煮

scrape 刮

amuse 逗乐,逗笑

cling 附着,紧贴

coax 处理(巧妙地)

dedicate 致力于

dissolve 使溶解,清楚

embarrass 使尴尬,使困窘

encourage 鼓励

epitomize 成为…缩影

inspect 检查

mention 提及,说起

utter 说

vacate 腾出,空出

withdraw 取消,撤销 retreat, recede

activat 刺激

affect 影响

affirm 断言

deny 否认

confirm 证实,使巩固,批准

execute 执行

expose 暴露

illustrate 阐明,举例说明

pound 猛击,捣碎;英镑

slide 滑动,幻灯片

crumble v. 崩裂,坍塌;(使)粉碎,(使)成碎屑;瓦解,崩溃;不再抵抗,无力应付 n. 碎屑

dampen 抑制;控制;减弱(感情、反应等);弄湿;使潮湿 inhibit


If you want to dispossess a people, the simplest way to do it is to tell their story.

embellish 美化,点缀 making more attractive

basking 晒太阳

appraise(evaluate) 评价;access the value or quality of

surmise vi 猜测,推测(guess, speculate)

erected vt 建立 build,竖立

vie vi. 争夺;激烈竞争 Paris was vie place to go 巴黎是值得去的地方

  • germinate 发芽(种子)
  • fermentate 发酵(酒)

render 给予

render labor service to government

juxtaposes 并列

delineate v. (详细地)描述,解释;标明,标示(边界)to describe or mark the edge of something

lurk 潜伏,诡计,花招

consent vi/n 同意

faint 晕倒 n/vi/adj

shove off 走开

Sheared 剪切(羊毛)

accrete = grow 增长,堆积

amputate vt. 截肢;切断;删除

entail 包含,蕴含 to make something necessary, or to involve something

Such a large investment inevitably entails(包含) some risk.

Repairing the roof will entail spending a lot of money. 修屋頂免不了要花好多錢。

plague v. 困扰,折磨;烦扰,纠缠; n. 瘟疫,传染病;

delineate (详细地)描述,解释;标明,标示(边界)

mean/suggest/indicate/represent/emblem/delineate/note 象征,意味着

water percolate into the ground

eroded 侵蚀 = worm down 磨损

overlook v. 忽视,忽略 ignore

accentuated by 强调
Supremacy was accentuated by the unyielding straight lines of both individual buildings and planned settlements since these too provided a marked contrast with the natural curvilinear shapes dominant in the native realm.

epitomize 成为…的典范

lessen v. (使)缩小,(使)减少
Toolbelts free both hands and lessen the risk of dropping hammers. 工具带解放了双手,并减少了锤子掉落的危险。

lessen their regulatory burden 减轻其监管负担

run 管理, run a business.
Even so, (转折)merchants and business people did not run(管理,run a business.) medieval communities, except in central and northern Italy and in the county of Flanders

precipitate v. 加速,促进,沉淀 n. 沉淀

verges on 接近

premise 前提

take aback 吃惊

derive =gain to get something from something else:

The institute derives all its money from foreign investments.

subscribe to v. 同意,赞成,订阅

encounter v. 遇到

plunge v. 跳水,暴跌

whip v/n 鞭子/鞭打

peppered with 点缀着

tend(照料) the young

regurgitated 反刍

outwitting your predators 战胜掠食者

summoned 召唤

thwart 反对,阻挠,挫败;横过(stop)

The Decade can help thwart this needless loss of life.

harness vt. 利用

extrapolate 外推;推断; infer

engaged by 被吸引/迷住:被某事物或某人所吸引或迷住。

Her attention was engaged by the display of the new dress in the shop windows.

embellish 修饰;装饰;润色