Art History

艺术历史

优先级从前往后降低:文学、艺术、建筑、绘画、音乐

听力都记录下来就没太大问题。按照大意和文章脉络,关键点,But转折,小细节。

艺术讨论的问题

  • 艺术作品强调作者个人的风格,艺术家都会借鉴其他人的作品。
  • 艺术作品的特点和风格以及形成的原因。
  • 艺术作品形成某种风格的原因,绘画技术(颜料)发展。
  • 该艺术家的技术特点,2个小细节
  • 艺术家的职业生涯环境,新技术对她的职业的影响
  • 开始不受欢迎,晚期或者过世多年,作品才重新收到认识。
  • 艺术家的观点会如何通过她的作品体现出来?
  • 2个小细节,证明艺术家在当时的地位很高
  • 教授对某种艺术风格,某个人,有自己的看法
  • 其他艺术作品或风格,对这个艺术家的影响,以及体现在什么方面?

Hierarchy of Art Genres

  • history and religious
  • Genre Scences
  • Portraits
  • Landscape
  • Still-life

Words

  • personification 拟人化
  • patrons: a person who gives financial or other support to a person, organization, or cause.
  • forgery: 伪造品,赝品。the action of forging a copy or imitation of a document, signature, banknote, or work of art.
  • date a painting: 确定画的年代
  • portrait n. 肖像
  • realism: 现实主义,what it is, accurate, objective as possible
  • expressionism: artist express subject. subjective emotions, showing the inner reality as interpreted by the artist rather than the outward form.
  • portray v. 描绘
  • statue 雕像,雕塑
  • bronze n. 青铜
  • choir 合唱团
  • stencil painting 塑模画,模版
  • Cave art 岩洞艺术
  • lit 发光的 点亮
  • tress 头发,编头发或绳子
  • Museum curators 博物馆展览组织者
  • pigment 颜料
  • heroism, divinity, or youth. 英雄主义、神性或青春
  • marble statues 大理石雕像
  • monochrome 单色
  • polychrome 多色
  • disintegrate 瓦解
  • pigment 颜料
  • weathered away 风化了
  • deteriorate 褪色,退化
  • exposed to the elements 暴露在自然环境中
  • accidentally: unknowingly
  • armor 盔甲
  • cloak 披风
  • battlefield 战场
  • nursery 苗圃,幼儿园
  • formal analysis of a painting 一幅画的形式分析
  • color, texture, line, shapes, proportion, and composition
  • what aspects are emphasized
  • an abstract representation of something
  • harsh lines or soft lines
  • nterpretation of the work
  • self-contained: (of a person) quiet and independent; not depending on or influenced by others.
  • realistic impressionism
  • restoring and preserving pieces of art 修复和保存艺术品
  • stretchy figures
  • poetry 诗歌,诗集
  • soprano 女高音
  • lace 蕾丝
  • palimpsest
  • Curator 策展人,策展人是为美术馆、博物馆、图书馆或其它商业单位安排艺术家与场地方媒合展览事宜,或是决定文物呈现方式的独立工作者。
  • brushstroke 一笔
  • frescos 壁画
  • commission 订单,委托
  • mason 石匠

Art Movements(After the Renaissance)

What are some art movements since the Renaissance?

  • Baroque(巴洛克) Art focused on both emotional and dramatic scenes.
  • Cubism(立体派) was formed by using geometric shapes when painting figures.
  • Pop Art(流行艺术), like the art that Andy Warhol created, uses all sorts of materials. 流行艺术:指起源于20世纪60年代的一种现代艺术形式,使用来自日常生活的图像和物品。

Baroque Art(1600-1750)(dramatic引人注目/夸张的 style)

Compared with the classicism of the Renaissance, Baroque Art is characterized by the dramatic contrast of light and shadow as well as vivid emotional expressions. Baroque often evokes an emotional and dramatic feeling in the viwer.

  • architecture, music and literature.
  • artists: Caravaggio, Rembrandt and Rubens

Rococo Art(France, 1750-1800)(flashy浮华的 style)

Rococo Art is characterized by its decorative and lighthearted look that uses delicate pastel colors. 洛可可艺术的特点是装饰和轻松的外观,使用细腻的柔和色彩。

Neoclassicism(1750-1800, reason, orderly)

Romantic(1850-1890, emotion and imagination)

artists: Blake, Delacroix and Goya

Realism(1850-1890) (paint exactly as they saw)

  • artists: Jean Millet
  • Gustave Courbet

Modern Art

  • impressionism(abstract, did not paint their subjects exactly as they looked)
  • artists: Monet, Manet, Van Gogh, Cezanne

艺术类文章

文章结构

  • 艺术家是谁
  • 有什么样的风格
  • 通过什么样的技巧展现他的风格
  • 最后对艺术家的生平进行一定的介绍,说明他为什么会产生这样的风格

出题点

  • 艺术家
  • 风格特征
  • 体现风格的方式
  • 生平背景

画家展示自己风格的方式

颜色,线条,形状。

Articles

Art Conservation - a Palimpsest of Archimedes’ writing

Vocabularies:

  • restoring and preserving pieces of art 修复和保存艺术品
  • frescoes 壁画
  • artifacts 文物
  • palimpsest 重写本
  • commonplace vs revolutionary
  • moldy
  • decay
  • forger 铁匠;伪造者
  • scribe
  • spinach 菠菜(has iron)
  • interdisciplinary 交叉学科
  • film making

Summary:

Old artifacts are very valuable when they represent early technologies, all contain important historical information.

Not much of his work has survived, but what has survived is brilliant.

Now, a palimpsest is a type of manuscript that contains writing that’s hidden because something else was written over it later.

It could have ended up tucked away in a private collection, but fortunately, the collector who bought it has agreed to have experts restore every single word Archimedes wrote, so the contents can be shared with the world and studied.

There were still faint traces of Archimedes’ words on the pages.

He was reading an article about problems with the palimpsest and it said that there is iron in the original Archimedes’ ink.

The professor told a story about how the texts of a palimpsest of Archimedes’ writing were recovered. The ink Archimede used was made from spinach, which contains iron. If X-rays were spotted on the writing, a special light would be emitted from the original writing and diagram.

Art history class: Alice Neel painted portraits(100%)

She experienced difficulties as an artist, because of photography.

After photography became regarded as an art form, portrait painting became less prestigious, less respected as an art form.

And, well, art photography kind of took its place, so you can imagine that a portrait artist, would have had a hard time finding acceptance.

Her paintings’ chracteristic was the combination of realism and expressionism. In her paintings, bold color was used to paint special faces, and the body was streched.

But Neel wasn’t satisfied with photo-like realism, she went beyond that.

She believed in capturing the whole person, not just what was on the surface, that’s where the expressionists’ distortion is important, in an attempt to reveal the subjects’ character or personality.

Remember I said that photography and art photography had largely taken the place of portraiture, to the extent that some critics had declared the genre of portraiture to be dead.

But Neel felt that painting should reflect reality, a real realist’s stance you could say.

And to her, individuals, people best reflect the reality of their time, of the age that they lived in, so she painted portraits.

Questions:

What aspect of Alice Neel’s work does the class mainly discuss?
C. The style she used to portray her subjects.

What point does the professor make about photography and portraiture in the twentieth century?
B. Photography largely replaced the tradition of portrait painting.

According to the professor, what two aspects of Neel’s work are characteristic of Expressionism? Click on 2 answers.

  • C. The shape of the subjects’ bodies.
  • D. The use of color in the paintings.

According to the professor, why did Neel paint portraits?
A. She felt that it was the best way to represent a time period.

Why does the professor discuss the variety of people in Neel’s portraits?
D. To emphasize a distinctive feature of Neel’s body of work.

Portrait Artists and Portraiture: Cecilia Beaux

Words:

  • prestige 声望
  • well-known and successful
  • stand out 突出(成绩)

Sentences:

Cecilia Beaux was born in 1854, and after learning to paint and studying with several important artists of the time, Beaux became known as one of the best portrait painters in the United States.

her subjects were …

she really stood out back in the 1800s.

And today, she is still considered one of the greatest portrait painters of her time, male or female

Well, artists have done portraits of people for centuries, of famous people and regular people, and most portraits convey the artists’ um… personal vision, like their feelings and insights about a person, like their feelings and insights about a person.

Great, that’s a crucial point, and I’d like to explore that a little today.

personal vision, like their feelings and insights about a person.

In fact, she was the first full-time female instructor at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, and she was a full member of the National Academy of Design.

These are pretty important institutions, so, yeah, she definitely made headway for women artists.

So tell me what’s the first thing that draws you to this painting? 那么请告诉我这幅画最吸引你的是什么?

What catches your eye first? 什么首先引起您的注意?

Besides her excellent technical skills, like her use of brush strokes and color to make an impression, both respectives come through.

Now, the undefined background also shows how Cecilia Beaux was influenced by the French Impressionists, who believed, like Beaux, in a personal rather than conventional approach to their subject matter.

Beaux used some impressionist techniques and share much of their philosophy, but her style, it was all her own.

Statue of Greek vs Statue of Rmoman

Greeek statues were more calm and detached more idealized version of the human body, whild the Romans had a more natural style depicting more realistic facial features and emotions.

Archimedes’ Palimpsest 阿基米德的重写本

He realized that the iron in the ancient ink would display if exposed to a certain X-ray imaging method, and except for small portions of the text that couldn’t be deciphered, this technique’s been very helpful in seeing Archimedes’ texts and drawings through the medieval over writing .

  • parchment 羊皮纸
  • papyrus scrolls 纸莎草卷轴

O’Keeffe’s painting

Professor: Oh. Well, O’Keeffe was really more of a painter.

教授:哦。好吧,欧姬芙真的更像是一个画家。

Paleolithic Cave Painting(旧石器时代的洞穴壁画)

  • People in the Paleolithic era may not have had time for art, and the placement of the paintings does not indicate that they were meant to be looked at.
  • Paleolithic artists chose to represent only a small segment of the natural world, and their paintings were not always strict imitations of nature.
  • Hunting was central to Paleolithic life, and animals are central to cave art, leading some to believe that the paintings were created to bring luck to hunters.

Renaissance Period: artwork

Human figures.

人物形象。

secular point of view 世俗的角度

A contrapposto pose basically entails showing a slight twist in the body.

一个对应的姿势基本上需要显示身体部分的一点点扭曲。

From there, Alberti suggested that the artists imagine attaching the tendons and muscles, then covering those with flesh and skin.

由此,阿尔伯蒂建议艺术家想象着去固定筋腱和肌肉,然后再用皮肉覆盖它们。

Pygmalion

According to the Pygmalion effect, if you believe that someone is capable of achieving greatness, then that person will indeed achieve greatness.

Sand paintings, which help participants in rituals recall traditional chants, are part of ceremonies designed to restore beauty and harmony.

Sand paintings, which are created by Navajo men, are faithful re-creations of earlier works and as such represent the principle of stability.

In Navajo culture, weaving is a female art and is associated with creativity and change.

renditions 演绎

Navajo women own the family flocks, control the shearing of the sheep, the carding, the spinning, and dying of the thread, and the weaving of the fabrics. 纳瓦霍妇女拥有家庭的羊群,控制剪羊毛、梳理、纺纱、染线和织布。

Weaving is a paradigm(范例) of the creativity of a mythic ancestor named Spider Woman who wove the universe as a cosmic web that united earth and sky.

mandala 坛场

Giorgio Vasari

  • Anecdotes 奇闻逸事
  • glimpse 一瞥
  • private lives 私人生活
  • virtues and vices 美德与罪恶
  • story is so compelling 吸引人
  • who commissioned the painting 这幅画是谁委托的?

Fresco (Wall painting on plastic)

  • grand building 巨大建筑
  • apprentice 学徒

Shakespeare’s Portrait

here’s the twist 事情的转折点在于

spice things up a bit 让事情变得有趣一点

consider to be authentic

Through extensive testing, we know that the wood panel on which the Cobbe Portrait was painted comes from trees cut down during the late renaissance and that the oil paints used are also characteristic of that era.

balding man 秃顶男人

earl 伯爵

Realistic Works of Art in 1400s

  1. character
  2. setting(backround, linear perspective 线性透视)

Realism and Impressionism

What Are the Differences Between Realism and Impressionism?

Realism and Impressionism were both definitive 19th century art movements, but there are some fundamental differences between them.

Realists painted detailed portraits of lower-class subjects in dark, gritty, earthy tones to reflect the harsh reality of their lives, while Impressionism favored colorful images and pastel shades depicted with light, airy brushstrokes.

  • Realism Was Dark and Gritty Realism Was Dark and Gritty
  • Impressionism Was Light and Airy 印象派轻盈飘逸

Impressionists generally painted lighter, more frivolous subjects, celebrating outdoor leisure pursuits, café culture, the theatre and busy street life. Landscapes and gardens were also popular.

Realist paintings can be recognized for their distinctive palette of warm, dark and earthy tones, including black, brown, dark green and beige. These colors matched the true shades of nature, and reflected the Realists’ somber, serious subject matter. Meanwhile, the Impressionists rejected darker hues, and many banned black completely from their painting palette. Instead, they worked with pale, luminous and pastel shades, as can be seen in Claude Monet’s sparkling depictions of his water garden at Giverny.

I find Frantzen to be a very accessible(易接近的) artist.