Writing Templates(写作模版)


Basic paragraph structure

Good paragraphs usually follow a particular structure:

  • Topic sentence
  • Supporting sentence 1
  • Supporting sentence 2
  • Supporting sentence 3
  • More supporting sentences (as required)
  • Concluding sentence(s)

After the topic sentence, good paragraphs contain one or more ‘supporting sentences’ which explain the topic sentence in more detail. The supporting sentences might include reasons for the reader to agree with the topic sentence, or examples that explain or develop the topic sentence.

Supporting sentences often include ‘signposting’ language, to show the relationship between the ideas in the paragraph. Examples include:

  • Firstly… Secondly… Thirdly…
  • The first… The second… The third…
  • Furthermore, … However, … On the other hand, …

Ending with the conclusion

The conclusion of a paragraph is really important. It may: explain why the writer has included the paragraph; summarise the argument(s) made and evidence given; relate the paragraph to the theme of the essay. It may also signal to the reader what is coming next.

  • Good academic writing is made up of paragraphs with one clear idea per paragraph.
  • Paragraphs usually start with a topic sentence – a sentence that gives the main focus of the paragraph.
  • The topic sentence sometimes includes ‘signposting’ language to link the paragraph to the previous paragraph.
  • Supporting sentences follow the topic sentence. They develop the topic by giving reasons, evidence and/or examples.
  • The concluding sentence usually comes at the end. It explains why the paragraph is important and relates it to the theme of the essay.

Now you’ve had a good look at key concepts relating to the language of argument, let’s review what we’ve learned so far:

  • The claim is where you where you make your main point – it’s a key part of academic argument. If there’s no claim, there’s no argument.
  • You need to support your claim with evidence. We are talking about opinions here, not facts – good evidence backs up the points you make.
  • Justification is where you explain why the evidence supports the claim – sometimes this can be left out if it’s obvious or a widely held belief.
  • Claim, evidence and justification all combine to produce a clear argument.
  • Counter-arguments are important. If you include them in your writing it shows that you have considered more than one side of an argument.
  • Tell your reader your limitations. This doesn’t mean that your writing is lower quality but actually helps the reader understand your context better.



1、Many people insist that… 很多人(坚持)认为……


2、With the development of science and technology, more and more people believe that… 随着科技的发展,越来越多的人认为……


3、A lot of people seem to think that… 很多人似乎认为……

“think”终于闪亮登场,但“seem to”为整个句子增添了点婉转之感,这种客观的方式貌似较受老外(尤其腐国人)喜爱。


1、People’s views on… vary from person to person. Some hold that… . However, others believe that…. 人们对……的观点因人而异。有些人认为…..然而其他人却认为……


2、Attitudes towards (drugs) vary from person to person. 人们对待吸毒的态度因人而异。


3、People may have different opinions on… 人们对……可能会有不同的见解。


4、There are different opinions among people as to… 关于……人们的观点大不相同。

“different”虽拉低了水准,但“as to”又拯救了回来。

5、Different people hold different attitudes toward (failure). 对(失败)人们的态度各不相同。


1、Taking all these factors into consideration, we naturally come to the conclusion that… 把所有这些因素加以考虑,我们自然会得出结论……

很完全的答法,“take sth into consideration”短语的应用,加分。

2、Taking into account all these factors, we may reasonably come to the conclusion that… 考虑所有这些因素,我们可能会得出合理的结论……

“Take into account sth”短语似乎又比上句的“take sth into consideration”提升了一个层次。

3、Hence/Therefore, we’d better come to the conclusion that… 因此,自然我们得出以下结论…


再特意提一句:“we’d better”在这里不是“不得不”或“最好”的意思,而是一种自然而然,水到渠成的得出结论。

4、There is no doubt that (job-hopping) has its drawbacks as well as merits. 毫无疑问,跳槽有优点也有缺点。

短语“there is no doubt that”上线,同时运用我们的老朋友“as well as”增加看点。

5、All in all, we cannot live without… But at the same time we must try to find out new ways to cope with the problems that would arise. 总之,我们没有……是无法生活的。但同时,我们必须寻求新的解决办法来对付可能出现的新问题。


1、It is high time that we put an end to the (trend). 该是我们停止这一趋势的时候了。

“It is high time” 打头,为该句增色。注:that 后跟虚拟语气,后跟动词的一般过去式,表示“是某人做……的时候了”或者“是某人不做……的时候了”

2、It is time to take the advice of … and to put special emphasis on the improvement of … 该是采纳……的建议,并对……的进展给予非常重视的时候了。

去掉一个“high”,画风完全不一样,不用过去式,只需用“to do”来替代。

3、There is no doubt that enough concern must be paid to the problem of … 毫无疑问,对……问题应予以足够的重视。

“there is no doubt that”+被动还是蛮经典的组合。

4、Obviously,…. If we want to do something… , it is essential that… 显然,如果我们想做某事,我们需要……

这句有些老生常谈,稍微不“常”的就是“essential” 替代了“important”。

5、Only in this way can we… 只有这样,我们才能…


6、It must be realized that… 我们必须意识到…

把人人都会的“I realized”升格为被动语态,省略了主语,监考老师绝对会眼前一亮的!


1、Obviously, if we don’t control the problem, the chances are that… will lead us in danger. 很明显,如果我们不能控制这一问题,很有可能我们会陷入危险。

“the chances are that”替代了“may”,果然说话拐弯的生物不止是中国人。

2、No doubt, unless we take effective measures, it is very likely that… 毫无疑问,除非我们采取有效措施,否则很可能会……


3、It is urgent that immediate measures should be taken to stop the situation. 应立即采取措施阻止这一事态的发展。

“It is urgent that”+被动,效果不错滴。





In recent days, we have to face I problem_______A, which is becoming more and more serious. First, _________(说明A的现状).Second, _______(举例进一步说明现状)

Confronted with A, we should take a series of effective measures to cope with the situation. For one thing, _______(解决方法一). For another _______(解决方法二). Finally, _______(解决方法三).

Personally, I believe that _______(我的解决方法). Consequently, I’m confident that a bright future is awaiting us because _______(带来的好处).


When it comes to _______ ,different people hold different views .

Some contend that_______. For one thing,_______ .For another,_______ . In spite of all these claims, others maintain that ,They point out that .Another instance often cited is that_______ .

It’s no easy task to find a satisfactory answer to the issue. As for me, there’s some truth to both arguments .It’s advisable to _______.






Nowadays many people prefer A because it has a significant role in our daily life. Generally, its advantages can be seen as follows. First _______(A的优点之一). Besides _______(A的优点之二).

But every coin has two sides. The negative aspects are also apparent. One of the important disadvantages is that (A的第一个缺点).To make matters worse,(A的第二个缺点).

Through the above analysis, I believe that the positive aspects overweigh the negative ones. Therefore, I would like to _______(我的看法).

(From the comparison between these positive and negative effects of A, we should take it reasonably and do it according to the circumstances we are in. Only by this way, _______(对前景的预测).)


With the of,So it is of great importance for us to_______ . On the one hand_______, On the other hand_______,

However, we have figured out many ways to .Firstly, So long as . Secondly, Thirdly. In fact_______, That is because _______.

In a word,_______ .



审题时,除了要把握好图表的表层信息外,还要分析图标的深层含义,如原因、根源、可能的发展趋势等。图表中所提供的说明文字往往是问题的切入点,一定要仔细分析。 描述数据时要抓住重点,为中心服务,不必面面俱到,切忌毫无目的地罗列图表中的数据。如果数据较多,抓住图表中的极端点(如最大或最小、最多或最少,最好或最差)和基本相同进行描述。 主题句应明确,最好放在文章的开头,这样会使重点突出,主题明了。


  • 第1段:概述图表反映的主题思想
  • 第2段:分析产生的原因
  • 第3段:展望未来或提出方法或建议

As is shown/indicated/illustrated by the figure/percentage in the table(graph/picture/pie/chart), 作文题目的议题 has been on rise/ decrease (goesup/increases/drops/decreases),significantly/dramatically/steadily rising/decreasing from_______ in _______ to _______ in _______. From the sharp/marked decline/ rise in the chart, it goes without saying that _______.

There are at least two good reasons accounting for _______. On the one hand, _______. On the other hand, _______ is due to the fact that _______. Last but not the least, _______ is responsible for _______. Maybe there are some other reasons to show _______. But it is generally believed that the above-mentioned reasons are commonly convincing.

As far as I am concerned, I hold the point of view that _______. I am sure my opinion is both sound and well-grounded.

图表类型: table、chart、diagram graph、column chart、pie graph、bar plot

描述: show、describe、illustrate、can be seen from、clear、apparent、reveal、 represent

内容: figure、statistic、number、percentage、proportion

The table/chart diagram/graph shows (that) According to the table/chart diagram/graph

As (is) shown in the table/chart diagram/graph

As can be seen from the table/chart/diagram/graph/figures,figures/statistics shows (that)

It can be seen from the figures/statistics We can see from the figures/statistics

It is clear from the figures/statistics

It is apparent from the figures/statistics table/chart/diagram/graph figures (that) table/chart/diagram/graph shows/describes/illustrates how


microscopic analysis regeneration depopulation deforestation stabilise characterise specialise differentiate duplicate

Signposting language

Starting The aim of this study is to … This essay argues that … The main questions addressed in this paper are … This paper begins by … It will then go on to … Finally, …

Ending Finally, … In conclusion, …

Linking words and phrases

Listing: First(ly), … Second(ly), … Finally, …

Adding: In addition, … Furthermore, …

Showing contrast: However, … Nevertheless, … On the other hand, …

Giving a reason: For this reason, … because … because of … due to …

Indicating result or consequence: Therefore, … Thus, … As a result, … Consequently, …

Giving examples: For example, … For instance, … To exemplify, …

Academic Writing

Academic English still needs to be clear and easy to follow but it does tend to use more complicated vocabulary and less personal grammar forms. Compare these two sentences. They have similar meanings, but one is more appropriate for an academic context.

The scientific consensus holds that humankind bears a significant responsibility for the extent of climate change. Most scientists say that a lot of climate change is mostly our fault.

General: Most scientists say that…
Academic: The scientific consensus holds that…

General: …is mostly our fault.
Academic: …humankind bears a significant responsibility for…

General: …a lot of…
Academic: …the extent of…

Features of Academic English

  • Avoid using Contractions
  • Using passive
  • Avoid using Personal pronouns
  • Avoid using Multi* word (phrasal) verbs
  • Avoid using Slang, colloquial language and subjective descriptors


  • Let me start by…
  • I’ll start by…
  • First of all I’ll…
  • I’d lke to begin by…
  • My aim/purpose today is…


Moving on

Deliver your presentation with a clear structure and good signposting. This means using appropriate vocabulary to link and develop ideas. Here are a few suggestions:

  • Let me now turn to…
  • Let’s move on to…
  • Turning to…
  • I’d like now to…
  • Next…
  • Let’s look now at…

Ordering information

  • Firstly… secondly… thirdly… lastly
  • First of all… then… next… after that… finally
  • To start with… later… To finish

Giving examples

  • For example…
  • A good example of this is…
  • To illustrate this point…
  • This can be seen…


  • Before I finish I’d like to…
  • Let’s recap, shall we?
  • I’d like to sum up now…
  • Let me summarise briefly what I’ve said…
  • If I can just sum up the main points…
  • So, in conclusion/summary…

So,in conclusion, although the economic conditions are not favourable, we are still hitting our targets.

Alternatives to ‘and’

  1. In a list

Also, as well as

  1. In a sequence of actions

Then, after

  1. When giving more information

Furthermore, in addition, moreover

  1. When summarising

To conclude, to sum up, as I’ve said


  • Compare: similarities + differences
  • Contrast: differences
  • Evaluate/Criticise: judgement based on evidence
  • Define: exact meaning
  • discuss: explore all sides
  • Explain: details + reasons
  • Justify: evidence supporting a point of view

Start writing successful assignments

Assignment type 1: Essays
The main purpose of an essay is to make an argument. As such, essays need a clear structure and good research. They’re often longer pieces of writing.

Assignment type 2: Reports
Reports are written to present research and analyse findings. They contain particular sections such as an abstract – which is a summary of the findings, and a methodology section – which details the research methods used. Reports tend to be more impersonal and objective than essays. They are more common in sciences and business courses than humanities.

Assignment type 3: Literature reviews
These are written to systematically review academic materials on a particular topic (‘the literature’). They are often used to identify gaps in what has already been written by the academic community.

Assignment type 4: Short-answer assignments
These involve writing brief answers to one or several questions, which are designed to test subject knowledge and information-processing skills. They’re often done as regular homework or exams, rather than as longer pieces of work.