Writing Templates(写作模版)


FANBOYS: Coordinating Conjunctions


A coordinating conjunction is a word that connects two or more elements of the same grammatical type. The word coordinating refers specifically to bringing things together on the same level; this is what sets coordinating conjunctions apart from subordinating conjunctions, which join elements of unequal grammatical standing.

  • For
  • And
  • Nor
  • But
  • Or
  • Yet
  • So

I haven’t been to the supermarket yet this week, but I plan to go today.

I was hot and I was thirsty.

What Is a Subordinating Conjunction?


A subordinating conjunction is a word or phrase that links a dependent clause to an independent clause. This word or phrase indicates that a clause has informative value to add to the sentence’s main idea, signaling a cause-and-effect relationship or a shift in time and place between the two clauses.

Robin wasn’t allowed in the Batmobile any longer because he wouldn’t wear a seat belt.(because 前面不能有逗号!)

Since Robin refused to wear his seat belt, Batman has banned him from the Batmobile.

Subordinating conjunctions signaling relationships of time or place

Robin looked regretfully at the Batmobile whenever he passed it in the Batcave.

After Batman was done working for the night, Robin took a secret ride in the Batmobile.

Before Robin gets his job in the Batcave back, he must promise to stop playing with the Batmobile.

Comma placement and subordinating conjunctions

Subordinating conjunctions that fall in the middle of a sentence are generally not preceded by a comma. This is the opposite of what is done with coordinating conjunctions, or words that join two independent clauses (for, and, nor, but, or, yet, and sometimes so).

When a subordinate clause begins a sentence, however, the whole clause (but not the subordinating conjunction itself) is followed by a comma.

  • ❌Whenever, Batman was away, Robin drove the Batmobile.

  • ✔️ Whenever Batman was away, Robin drove the Batmobile.

  • ❌Robin drove the Batmobile, whenever Batman was away.

  • ✔️ Robin drove the Batmobile whenever Batman was away.

A handy list of subordinating conjunctions:

  • after
  • although
  • as
  • as if
  • as long as
  • as much as
  • as soon as
  • as though
  • because
  • before
  • by the time
  • even if
  • even though
  • if
  • in case
  • in order that
  • in the event that
  • lest
  • now that
  • once
  • only
  • only if
  • provided that
  • since
  • so
  • supposing
  • than
  • that
  • though
  • till
  • unless
  • until
  • when
  • whenever
  • where
  • whereas
  • wherever
  • whether or not
  • while

How to Improve Your English Writing?

Understand who you are writing for

Plan your writing

Organise your ideas into paragraphs

One main idea per paragraph.

Don’t use uncessary words and fewer words(cut unnessary words and sentences)

no meaning words:

  • really

  • very

  • absolutely

  • very tired -> exhausted

  • absolutely exhausted -> exhausted

  • as a result -> consequently

  • on the other hand(相反地:用于引出与前述相反的观点或情况。) -> nevertheless(然而,不过)

Write as little as possible:

  • This will get better in the future -> This will improve in the future.
  • She gave me a lot of help -> She helped me a lot(greatly).
  • Maybe This will solve the problem.
  • This might/could …
  • We need to find a someone who can teach our son. -> We need to find a tacher for our son.
  • There many advantages and disadvantages to this.(didn’t give useful information)
  • Of course, there are two sides to this issue

Using fewer words and fewer sentences. Cuing empty words.

Use short simple sentences

  • 10 words is a good target
  • 20+ words could be dangerous
  • Don’t use passive voice unless you need to
  • Put your subject at the start of the sentence
  • Don’t use relative clauses unless you really need to
  • Consider braking longer sentences into shorter ones
  • Use longer, more complex sentences only if you can express your idea in a simpler way

Important Points

  • Sub/verb agreement
  • Collective nouns(can be singular or plural)
  • Transition Words
  • Comma, FANBOY(for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so)
  • Use the prompt

ETS Writing Scoring


The response appears to be strong. There may be only a few errors with the following features:

  • Sentence fragments
  • Run-on sentences
  • Confusing sentences
  • Subject-verb agreement
  • Verb formation
  • Pronoun errors
  • Possessive errors (missing an apostrophe)
  • Wrong or missing words


Here is an opportunity to improve. The response may have errors with the following features:

  • Missing, extra, or incorrectly used articles
  • Confused words
  • Wrong or nonstandard word forms
  • Incorrect comparisons
  • Preposition errors
  • Negation errors
  • Wrong part of speech


Errors in mechanics only impact performance when they interfere with comprehensibility. The response appears to be strong. There may be only a few errors with the following features:

  • Spelling
  • Capitalization
  • Missing punctuation
  • Hyphen errors
  • Compound words
  • Duplicated words or phrases
  • Extra commas

Organization Development

The response included the following features to some extent:

  • Thesis statement
  • Main ideas
  • Supporting ideas
  • Introductory material
  • Transitional words and phrases

English Punctuation Guide - English Writing Lesson

Full Stop/Period.

  • put one space after period.
  • e.g./ i.e. / etc.
  • Mr/Dr/Mr./Mrs./Dr.
  • a.m. p.m./ AM PM


  • separate items in a list: egges, flour and sugar
  • with certain conjunction: and, but, so, or
  • add non-essential information to a sentence;


  • examples; details; explanations

Rapid urbanisation has led to multiple problems: congestion, air pollution and a shortage of affordable housing for families.

He left all of his money to his best friend in the whole world: his cat.


Semicolons are use to connect two sentences which are about related ideas.

Semicolons (;) separate independent clauses that are related in meaning, and they separate items in a list when those items themselves are long or include commas. For example, this summary could say “Semicolons are useful; they show that clauses are related in meaning.”

Semicolon is similar to full stop. Use it shows that your ideas that before a semicolon and after the semicolon are connected.

He’s so stubborn; it’s(不大写,不一定需要连词) impossible to convince him to change his ideas even a little.

We knew he was guilty; there was no evidence, however.


We travelled to four cities: Santa Fe, which is in New Mexico; Denver, Colorado; Las Vegas, Nevada; and finally Los Angeles in California.

Only three people showed up: Tom, the head of accounting; Maria, who works in the sales department; and Ellie, who is doing an internship here.


The apostrophe is used to indicate possessive case, contractions, and omitted letters. The apostrophe is not strictly a punctuation mark, but more a part of a word to indicate possessive case, contractions, or omitted letters.

  • replace a missing letter: you’re
  • belongs to: Dean’s jacket
  • mother’s; mothers'
  • Boris’s
  • Parents'
  • How many m’s are there in ‘accommodation’?


  • make compund words(adjectives): six-hour, five-dollar, three-year-old
  • with smoe prefixes: Ex-wife, Non-smokers, Self-driving cars
  • prefixes with proper nouns or numbers: anti-European, post-1950 politics
  • compound numbers and fractions: three-quarters, twenty-three

Dashes(might look like hyphens, but they aren’t the same)

  • en dash: -
  • em dash: —(MacOS: option + shift + -)

En dashes have a space on either side of the dash - like this.

Em dashes join onto the words before and after—like this.

Both en dashes and em dashes do the same job; choose one and stick with it.

Dashes could add extra information to a sentence. Remeber comma can also do this. The extra information can be removed from the sentence, and the sentence still makes sense.

He had escaped-or so he thought.

The number of stars in the Milky Way-including many which are undetectable-is estimated to be over 400 billion.(- adds extra information, and it can only do one job)

The number of stars in the Milky Way, including many which are undetectable, is estimated to be over 400 billion.

Quotation mark("",’')

  • single: '

  • double: "

  • Speech marks: quoting what someone said

He stood up and said “I wouldn’t do it if you paid me a million dollars”

“Being lucky is more important than being talented,” were the first words of her speech.

  • Speech marks: express irony, sarcasm or scepticism 表达讽刺、讽刺或怀疑

Paying 100 euros for ’luxury economy’ was not a good idea.

Many cities in the ‘special economic development zone’ are practically ghost towns.

  • Speech marks: to refer words as words

‘Millennium’ is difficult words to spell!

Why did you use ‘plethora’ here?


  • Adding non-essential information to a sentence.

Vladimir Myakovsky (1893-1930) was one of the most famous poets of the revolution era.

The percentage of under-30s doing regular exercise was lower(45%) than that of people over 45(52%).

  • giving your reader options

Question marks

What time is it?

How old are you?

Exclamation marks

Spelling Rules

  • beginner
  • offering
  • planning

Using Linking Words and Phrases(Coherence and cohesion)

Linking words:

  • however
  • as a result
  • and
  • because
  • consequently(a result)
  • on the other hand(in contrast)
  • also

Linking words make structure and idea clear.

1. Contrast(对比,转折):

  • however
  • on the other hand
  • nevertheless
  • although

2. Addition(Connect similar ideas together):

  • and
  • futhermore
  • in addition
  • also

3. Reason/purpose:

  • because
  • due to
  • in order to(can replace by to, not recommended)
  • so that

4. Cause/effect:

  • therefore
  • so
  • consequently
  • as a result


  1. In my personal experience, people certainly spend less time reading books than in the past. I think this is due to the variety of digital entertainment options that people have nowadays.(Reason)
  2. Eating a high-sugar diet has been linked to several serious diseases, most prominetly diabetes. Moreover, it causes tooth decay and dental problems.(Addition)
  3. Although advertising is ubiquitous in the modern world, it is also largely ineffective.(Contrast)
  4. Many schools now spend most of their teaching time preparing children to pass exams. As a result, many young people lack the practical skills which employers are seeking.(Cause/effect)


I need to ask for some time off work because I am planning to attend a training course.

Although social media can help people to connect with each other, it also has several significant disadvantages.

Prepositions(need a noun after prespositions)

  • due to
  • despite
  • because of

Despite the well-known benefits of regular exercise, many people still lead a mostly sedentary lifestyle.

Young professionals are increasingly moving to smaller cities because of the high cost of living in large urban centres.

Adverbs(used at the beginning of a sentence, need a comma after it):

  • on the other hand
  • therefore

Freedom of the press is more important than individuals’ right to privacy. Therefore, newspapers should be able to publish stories about the private lives of celebrities if they choose to.

Of course, elderly people should be paid a pension which reflects the money they paid into the social security system during their working lives. One the other hand, the pension system needs to be sustainable over the long term.

furthermore: used to add point which is more important than your first idea

Using plastic products generates litter which harms the environment. Furthermore, plastic can take hundreds of years to degrade.

besides: used to add a point which is less important than your main idea

Smoking has been proven to cause many serious illnesses. Besides, it is an expensive habit.

Using online dictionary to find examples.

We use the linking words to highlight the connection which already exists.

How to use commas in English

How To Use Commas - English Writing Lesson

listing comma(replaces “and” or ‘or’)

we need a, b, and c.

We spent out itme relaxing on the beach, swimming in the sea and drinking coffee in the seaside cafes.

  • She has long, dark, shiny hair.
  • He bought a bottle of dark German beer.

Joining comma

Used to join two complete sentences, together with a linking word.

“We were tired, and we didn’t feel like going anywhere.”

The bracketing comma

Used to add extra information to a sentence.

This book, first published in 1956, is still useful for students today.

One of my colleagues, who used to be a semi-professional footballer, invited me to play in their 5-a-side team this weekend.

Similar to most people his age, he isn’t thinking about his future.

He told me that he wanted to quit and become a painter, which surprised me.

5 Ways to Compare and Contrast in English

  • They’re totally/so different
  • It’s hard to compare them
  • They’re almost nothing alike
  • Laos is way more relaxed
  • Lisbon is much cheaper than most European cities
  • Shanghai is way bigger than anywhere I’ve been before
  • The museum was so much more interesting than I expected

much vs more:

  • More: comparative, like more interesting
  • Much: adds emphasis, shows you’re talking about a large difference

Tokyo is much more expensive than other Asian cities.

The food in Mexico was much cheaper than in the States.

Describ people who are similar:

  • They are so alike
  • I can hardly tell them apart
  • They look so similar
  • They’re equally chatty
  • He’s just as sarcatic as his brother
  • He’s just as impatient as her mother

Talk about small differences:

  • They played a bit better
  • They were just a little sharper.
  • The keeper did slightly better.
  • They were a touch faster.
  • Taking the train will be a bit faster
  • She’s a little older than her husband

Learn How to Make Complex Sentences(without using conjunctions, i.e. linking words)

  • Tulip mania is the earliest well-known example of a financial bubble.
  • Tulips started to be cultivated in Holland around 1593.
  • Tulip prices collapsed dramatically in 1637.
  • At the peak of tulip mania in 1637, a single tulip bulb could cost ten times an average worker’s salary.

Using -ing Participle Clauses

  1. Two actions happening at the same time
  2. Cause and effect
  3. One thing happened before/after another(Having + past participle)

Being the earliest well-know example of a financial bubbble, tulip mania has been studied and discussed extensively.

Using -ed Participle Clauses

Linking two clauses with the same subject, and one of the clauses has a passive verb.

Introduced to northern Europe in the mid-16th century, tulips started to be cultivated in Holland around 1593.

Cultivated in Holland since 1593, tulips increased in popularity and price until 1637, when prices collapsed dramatically.

Tulips, introduced to Europe in the mid-16th century, started to be cultivated in Holland around 1593.

Relative Clauses(定语从句)

  1. Add information to a nouns or a noun phrase
  2. Use relative clauses with ‘which’ to add information to a sentence or an idea

Tulip mania, which occurred in Holland, reached its peak in 1637.(must directly comes after the none/none phrase)

Tulip mania, reached its peak in 1637, which occurred in Holland.

Tulip mania, which occurred in Holland, reached its peak in 1637, when prices collapsed dramatically.

Tulip mania, which reached its peak in 1637, occurred in Holland.

Tulip mania, which reached its peak in 1637, occurred in Holland, where tulips had been cultivated since 1593.


  1. Tulip mania reached its peak in 1637
  2. Tulip mania is the earliest well-known example of a financial bubble
  3. In 1637, a single tulip bulb could cost ten times an average worker’s salary
  • Tulip mania, which reached its peak in 1637, is the earliest well-known example of a financial bubble.
  • Tulip mania, which is the earliest well-known example of a financial bubble, reached its peak in 1637.
  • Tulip mania, which is the earliest well-known example of a financial bubble, reached its peak in 1637, when a single tulip bulb could cost ten times an average worker’s salary.

Using relative clause to add information to a whole idea:

Tulip mania is the earliest well-known example of a financial bubble, which means that it has been studied and discussed extensively.

Cleft Sentences 分裂句

It was in 1637 that tulip mania reached its peak.

It was in 1637 that tulip mania reached its peak, at which point a single tulip bulb could cost ten times an average worker’s salary.

Tulips started to be cultivated in Holland in 1593.

  • It was in Holland that tulips started to be cultivated, in 1593.
  • It was in 1593 that tulips started to be cultivated in Holland.

Essay Structure

Simple Structure

  • thesis(point of view)
  • reason 1
  • reason 2
  • conclusion

Example: Which is more important that a teacher knows the subject matter or they can relate to students?

  • Teachers need to relate their students
  • Interest is 9/10 of learning
  • Students feel relaxed
  • Students are active and engaged

Let’s find out essay structure

  1. When teachers relate to students, students are relaxed.
  2. When students are relaxed they learn efficiently.
  3. When students learn efficiently, they remember more.


  • be keen on
  • be really into
  • be a big fan of
  • be enthusiastic /passionate about
  • prefer to …
  • be fond of
  • be mad about
  • be obsessed with
  • be fascinated by


  • detest
  • disgust
  • loathe
  • can’t stand
  • don’t care for


  • amuse
  • cheer me up
  • fill me with joy
  • entertain
  • brighten my day
  • delight me


  • in addition
  • furthermore
  • moreover = what’s more
  • then
  • besides
  • likewise
  • similarly
  • at the same time
  • meanwhile


  • likely
  • possibly
  • probably
  • in some cases/situations
  • generally speaking = broadly speaking
  • to a certain extent/ degree
  • the general phenomenon is
  • I think I would have to say that it really depends
  • Well, quite honestly I don’t think I’ve ever thought about that, but I guess …
  • Actually, this isn’t something that I’ve ever considered, but in short

5 Pwerful Comparison Words

Moreover(followed by a comma)

  • My brother raises and trains guard dogs. Moreover, my sister is a professional trainer.
  • Los Angeles has grown steadily each year since 1900. Moreover, Orange County has developed substantially since 1950.

just as/ so too

  • just as dogs like bones, so too do cats like fish.
  • Just as Los Angeles has grown in size, so too has Orange County.

As well as

Usually occurs between two things being compared.

__ as well as __ (verb/ verb phrase)

  • Dogs as well as cats have favorite foods.
  • San Bernadino as well as Riverside, Counties begtan strong growth around 1970.

along with

__ along with ___ verb

Population increase along with high home prices appear in 2009.


both __ and ___ (verb/verb phrase)

  • Both dogs and cats are animals that show discriminating tastes in food.
  • Both population and home price data give important insights into the economy.

5 Pwerful Contrast Words


  • Although I am tired, I will study for the TOEFL today.
  • I will study for the TOEFL today although I am tired.

Even though(synonyms for although)

  • Even though I am tired, I will study for the TOEFL today.
  • I will study for the TOEFL today even though I am tired.

However(at beginning of a sentence)

  • The US is not a socialist country. However, 22% of funds go to social security.
  • The US dedicates 22% of its budget to Social security. It is not, however, socialist.


can occur first or in the middle of a sentence.

  • Whereas the US spends 20% of funds on defense, it spends just 2% on education.


often starts the sentence that shows contrast.

  • 18% of US funds have rules about how they are spent. Still, only 2% is for education.
  • Education is known to be critical for country’s success. Still, the US spends very little of tis money educating its citizens.

Basic paragraph structure

Good paragraphs usually follow a particular structure:

  • Topic sentence(I believe that/ I’m convinced that)
  • Supporting sentence 1
  • Supporting sentence 2
  • Supporting sentence 3
  • More supporting sentences (as required)
  • Concluding sentence(s)

After the topic sentence, good paragraphs contain one or more ‘supporting sentences’ which explain the topic sentence in more detail. The supporting sentences might include reasons for the reader to agree with the topic sentence, or examples that explain or develop the topic sentence.

Supporting sentences often include ‘signposting’ language, to show the relationship between the ideas in the paragraph. Examples include:

  • Firstly… Secondly… Thirdly…
  • The first… The second… The third…
  • Furthermore, … However, … On the other hand, …

Ending with the conclusion

The conclusion of a paragraph is really important. It may: explain why the writer has included the paragraph; summarise the argument(s) made and evidence given; relate the paragraph to the theme of the essay. It may also signal to the reader what is coming next.

  • Good academic writing is made up of paragraphs with one clear idea per paragraph.
  • Paragraphs usually start with a topic sentence – a sentence that gives the main focus of the paragraph.
  • The topic sentence sometimes includes ‘signposting’ language to link the paragraph to the previous paragraph.
  • Supporting sentences follow the topic sentence. They develop the topic by giving reasons, evidence and/or examples.
  • The concluding sentence usually comes at the end. It explains why the paragraph is important and relates it to the theme of the essay.

Now you’ve had a good look at key concepts relating to the language of argument, let’s review what we’ve learned so far:

  • The claim is where you where you make your main point – it’s a key part of academic argument. If there’s no claim, there’s no argument.
  • You need to support your claim with evidence. We are talking about opinions here, not facts – good evidence backs up the points you make.
  • Justification is where you explain why the evidence supports the claim – sometimes this can be left out if it’s obvious or a widely held belief.
  • Claim, evidence and justification all combine to produce a clear argument.
  • Counter-arguments are important. If you include them in your writing it shows that you have considered more than one side of an argument.
  • Tell your reader your limitations. This doesn’t mean that your writing is lower quality but actually helps the reader understand your context better.



1、Many people insist that… 很多人(坚持)认为……


2、With the development of science and technology, more and more people believe that… 随着科技的发展,越来越多的人认为……


3、A lot of people seem to think that… 很多人似乎认为……

“think”终于闪亮登场,但“seem to”为整个句子增添了点婉转之感,这种客观的方式貌似较受老外(尤其腐国人)喜爱。


1、People’s views on… vary from person to person. Some hold that… . However, others believe that…. 人们对……的观点因人而异。有些人认为…..然而其他人却认为……


2、Attitudes towards (drugs) vary from person to person. 人们对待吸毒的态度因人而异。


3、People may have different opinions on… 人们对……可能会有不同的见解。


4、There are different opinions among people as to… 关于……人们的观点大不相同。

“different”虽拉低了水准,但“as to”又拯救了回来。

5、Different people hold different attitudes toward (failure). 对(失败)人们的态度各不相同。


1、Taking all these factors into consideration, we naturally come to the conclusion that… 把所有这些因素加以考虑,我们自然会得出结论……

很完全的答法,“take sth into consideration”短语的应用,加分。

2、Taking into account all these factors, we may reasonably come to the conclusion that… 考虑所有这些因素,我们可能会得出合理的结论……

“Take into account sth”短语似乎又比上句的“take sth into consideration”提升了一个层次。

3、Hence/Therefore, we’d better come to the conclusion that… 因此,自然我们得出以下结论…


再特意提一句:“we’d better”在这里不是“不得不”或“最好”的意思,而是一种自然而然,水到渠成的得出结论。

4、There is no doubt that (job-hopping) has its drawbacks as well as merits. 毫无疑问,跳槽有优点也有缺点。

短语“there is no doubt that”上线,同时运用我们的老朋友“as well as”增加看点。

5、All in all, we cannot live without… But at the same time we must try to find out new ways to cope with the problems that would arise. 总之,我们没有……是无法生活的。但同时,我们必须寻求新的解决办法来对付可能出现的新问题。


1、It is high time that we put an end to the (trend). 该是我们停止这一趋势的时候了。

“It is high time” 打头,为该句增色。注:that 后跟虚拟语气,后跟动词的一般过去式,表示“是某人做……的时候了”或者“是某人不做……的时候了”

2、It is time to take the advice of … and to put special emphasis on the improvement of … 该是采纳……的建议,并对……的进展给予非常重视的时候了。

去掉一个“high”,画风完全不一样,不用过去式,只需用“to do”来替代。

3、There is no doubt that enough concern must be paid to the problem of … 毫无疑问,对……问题应予以足够的重视。

“there is no doubt that”+被动还是蛮经典的组合。

4、Obviously,…. If we want to do something… , it is essential that… 显然,如果我们想做某事,我们需要……

这句有些老生常谈,稍微不“常”的就是“essential” 替代了“important”。

5、Only in this way can we… 只有这样,我们才能…


6、It must be realized that… 我们必须意识到…

把人人都会的“I realized”升格为被动语态,省略了主语,监考老师绝对会眼前一亮的!


1、Obviously, if we don’t control the problem, the chances are that… will lead us in danger. 很明显,如果我们不能控制这一问题,很有可能我们会陷入危险。

“the chances are that”替代了“may”,果然说话拐弯的生物不止是中国人。

2、No doubt, unless we take effective measures, it is very likely that… 毫无疑问,除非我们采取有效措施,否则很可能会……


3、It is urgent that immediate measures should be taken to stop the situation. 应立即采取措施阻止这一事态的发展。

“It is urgent that”+被动,效果不错滴。





In recent days, we have to face I problem_______A, which is becoming more and more serious. First, _________(说明A的现状).Second, _______(举例进一步说明现状)

Confronted with A, we should take a series of effective measures to cope with the situation. For one thing, _______(解决方法一). For another _______(解决方法二). Finally, _______(解决方法三).

Personally, I believe that _______(我的解决方法). Consequently, I’m confident that a bright future is awaiting us because _______(带来的好处).


When it comes to _______ ,different people hold different views .

Some contend that_______. For one thing,_______ .For another,_______ . In spite of all these claims, others maintain that ,They point out that .Another instance often cited is that_______ .

It’s no easy task to find a satisfactory answer to the issue. As for me, there’s some truth to both arguments .It’s advisable to _______.

  • challenged the idea that …
  • argued that …
  • disagree with
  • point out that
  • hold different views
  • had different opinions
  • think that …
  • says that …
  • concluded that …
  • discoveries show that … were much ..er than previously thought.






Nowadays many people prefer A because it has a significant role in our daily life. Generally, its advantages can be seen as follows. First _______(A的优点之一). Besides _______(A的优点之二).

But every coin has two sides. The negative aspects are also apparent. One of the important disadvantages is that (A的第一个缺点).To make matters worse,(A的第二个缺点).

Through the above analysis, I believe that the positive aspects overweigh the negative ones. Therefore, I would like to _______(我的看法).

(From the comparison between these positive and negative effects of A, we should take it reasonably and do it according to the circumstances we are in. Only by this way, _______(对前景的预测).)


With the of,So it is of great importance for us to_______ . On the one hand_______, On the other hand_______,

However, we have figured out many ways to .Firstly, So long as . Secondly, Thirdly. In fact_______, That is because _______.

In a word,_______ .



审题时,除了要把握好图表的表层信息外,还要分析图标的深层含义,如原因、根源、可能的发展趋势等。图表中所提供的说明文字往往是问题的切入点,一定要仔细分析。 描述数据时要抓住重点,为中心服务,不必面面俱到,切忌毫无目的地罗列图表中的数据。如果数据较多,抓住图表中的极端点(如最大或最小、最多或最少,最好或最差)和基本相同进行描述。 主题句应明确,最好放在文章的开头,这样会使重点突出,主题明了。


  • 第1段:概述图表反映的主题思想
  • 第2段:分析产生的原因
  • 第3段:展望未来或提出方法或建议

As is shown/indicated/illustrated by the figure/percentage in the table(graph/picture/pie/chart), 作文题目的议题 has been on rise/ decrease (goesup/increases/drops/decreases),significantly/dramatically/steadily rising/decreasing from_______ in _______ to _______ in _______. From the sharp/marked decline/ rise in the chart, it goes without saying that _______.

There are at least two good reasons accounting for _______. On the one hand, _______. On the other hand, _______ is due to the fact that _______. Last but not the least, _______ is responsible for _______. Maybe there are some other reasons to show _______. But it is generally believed that the above-mentioned reasons are commonly convincing.

As far as I am concerned, I hold the point of view that _______. I am sure my opinion is both sound and well-grounded.

图表类型: table、chart、diagram graph、column chart、pie graph、bar plot

描述: show、describe、illustrate、can be seen from、clear、apparent、reveal、 represent

内容: figure、statistic、number、percentage、proportion

The table/chart diagram/graph shows (that) According to the table/chart diagram/graph

As (is) shown in the table/chart diagram/graph

As can be seen from the table/chart/diagram/graph/figures,figures/statistics shows (that)

It can be seen from the figures/statistics We can see from the figures/statistics

It is clear from the figures/statistics

It is apparent from the figures/statistics table/chart/diagram/graph figures (that) table/chart/diagram/graph shows/describes/illustrates how


microscopic analysis regeneration depopulation deforestation stabilise characterise specialise differentiate duplicate

Signposting language

Starting The aim of this study is to … This essay argues that … The main questions addressed in this paper are … This paper begins by … It will then go on to … Finally, …

Ending Finally, … In conclusion, …

Linking words and phrases

Listing: First(ly), … Second(ly), … Finally, …

Adding: In addition, … Furthermore, …

Showing contrast: However, … Nevertheless, … On the other hand, …

Giving a reason: For this reason, … because … because of … due to …

Indicating result or consequence: Therefore, … Thus, … As a result, … Consequently, …

Giving examples: For example, … For instance, … To exemplify, …

Academic Writing

Academic English still needs to be clear and easy to follow but it does tend to use more complicated vocabulary and less personal grammar forms. Compare these two sentences. They have similar meanings, but one is more appropriate for an academic context.

The scientific consensus holds that humankind bears a significant responsibility for the extent of climate change. Most scientists say that a lot of climate change is mostly our fault.

General: Most scientists say that…
Academic: The scientific consensus holds that…

General: …is mostly our fault.
Academic: …humankind bears a significant responsibility for…

General: …a lot of…
Academic: …the extent of…

Features of Academic English

  • Avoid using Contractions
  • Using passive
  • Avoid using Personal pronouns
  • Avoid using Multi* word (phrasal) verbs
  • Avoid using Slang, colloquial language and subjective descriptors


  • Let me start by…
  • I’ll start by…
  • First of all I’ll…
  • I’d lke to begin by…
  • My aim/purpose today is…


Moving on

Deliver your presentation with a clear structure and good signposting. This means using appropriate vocabulary to link and develop ideas. Here are a few suggestions:

  • Let me now turn to…
  • Let’s move on to…
  • Turning to…
  • I’d like now to…
  • Next…
  • Let’s look now at…

Ordering information

  • Firstly… secondly… thirdly… lastly
  • First of all… then… next… after that… finally
  • To start with… later… To finish

Giving examples

  • For example…
  • A good example of this is…
  • To illustrate this point…
  • This can be seen…


  • Before I finish I’d like to…
  • Let’s recap, shall we?
  • I’d like to sum up now…
  • Let me summarise briefly what I’ve said…
  • If I can just sum up the main points…
  • So, in conclusion/summary…

So,in conclusion, although the economic conditions are not favourable, we are still hitting our targets.

Alternatives to ‘and’

  1. In a list

Also, as well as

  1. In a sequence of actions

Then, after

  1. When giving more information

Furthermore, in addition, moreover

  1. When summarising

To conclude, to sum up, as I’ve said


  • Compare: similarities + differences
  • Contrast: differences
  • Evaluate/Criticise: judgement based on evidence
  • Define: exact meaning
  • discuss: explore all sides
  • Explain: details + reasons
  • Justify: evidence supporting a point of view

Start writing successful assignments

Assignment type 1: Essays
The main purpose of an essay is to make an argument. As such, essays need a clear structure and good research. They’re often longer pieces of writing.

Assignment type 2: Reports
Reports are written to present research and analyse findings. They contain particular sections such as an abstract – which is a summary of the findings, and a methodology section – which details the research methods used. Reports tend to be more impersonal and objective than essays. They are more common in sciences and business courses than humanities.

Assignment type 3: Literature reviews
These are written to systematically review academic materials on a particular topic (‘the literature’). They are often used to identify gaps in what has already been written by the academic community.

Assignment type 4: Short-answer assignments
These involve writing brief answers to one or several questions, which are designed to test subject knowledge and information-processing skills. They’re often done as regular homework or exams, rather than as longer pieces of work.

Useful Sentenses

  • These vintage Cremonese violins are considered the best in the world.
  • Musical instruments evolved in ways that optimize their acoustical properties, how the instrument vibrates and sends those vibration through the air to our eardrums.
  • Yet most audience members probably aren’t even **aware of how much the instrument matters.
  • It is now well established that … 现在已经确定的是 …
  • Petroleum migration is analogous to(类似于) groundwater migration.
  • Using this approach 使用这种方法
  • It is not surprising, therefore, …

The committee consists of(包含) ten members. 委员会由十人组成。

With …, more … will be done.
With increased interest and better tools, more discoveries like these will be made around the world.

Many scholars today see human societies as too complex and varied to fit into simple categories of “civilized” or “not civilized.”

Difference between But and Though

Though: 制造反差
尽管下雨了,他还是出门了。Though it rains, he went out.

But: 提出不幸
他要出门,但是下雨了。He is going to go out, but it rains.


我认为 I’m convinced that … are much better than …

过渡在说第二点的时候用。Moreover, …. is also


For now, the demands of her young family must take precedence 目前,她年轻家庭的要求必须优先考虑

The first way, which should take precedence, is to …

A is very important and indispensable. A 是非常重要的和必不可少的。

Over time, it started becoming increasingly obvious and troubling to the …

There were criticisms that …

There was bad press, bad publicity

tremendous demands 巨大的需求

expand business

A led to the development of B.

Bob is admired for his generosity.

Alice is known for his knowledge/research/contribution in political science.

The idea is that …

The idea that …

A let B alone

Monopoly: owners exploit workers, control prices

A is nothing but water. A只不过是水

A seabird that flies far in search of food

什么因素影响信天翁在岛上筑巢的选择。Predators inhabiting the island

It enabled farmers to cultivate crops with minimal equipment and effort.

Life thrives on this planet, and it helped create the planet’s oxygen and nitrogen-rich atmosphere and moderate temperatures.

be composed of … 由 … 组成 ABC is composed of A, B and C; Air is composed mainly of nitrogen and oxygen.

ABC consists of A, B, and C. Breakfast consisted of cereal, fruit, and orange juice.

With a significant amount of head, Venus may continue to be geologically active with volcanoes, rifting, and folding.

Scientists suggest that …

Volcanoes continually vented more carbon dioxide into the atmosphere.

As resilience researchers, we aim to identify strategies that can help prevent people from developing mental illnesses.

Park/Beach is a tranquil escape from bustling city.

The majority of students believe that part-time jobs will provide them with more opportunities to develop their interpersonal skills, which may put them in a favorable postion in the future job markets.

Whether geography is thought of as a discipline or as a basic feature of our world, developing an understanding of the subject is important.

A doesn’t necessarily result in B.

Provided(只要,假如;表示条件) the right software is available, I should be able to solve the problem. 如果有合适的软件,我应该能够解决问题。

People are going to live live/ will live longer in the future.

Professor: Well, such decisions are made by general consensus within the community.

Nowadays, trains are pretty much taken for granted, but in the United States in the first part of the nineteenth century, when Thoreau lived, the railroad was a big deal, a technological revolution.

Thoreau offers both praise and criticisms of trains.

Thoreau also associates trains with commerce and trade. 梭罗也把火车和商业交易联系了起来。

fabric of society 社会结构 “The fabric of society” is a metaphor for the social order and in particular is suggestive of the idea that the social order is made of many “threads” (social milieus) that are “woven together (interconnected) and cohesive.

Second, this internationalism spelled the end of the(终结了) classical Greek city-state—the unit of government in ancient Greece—and everything it stood for.

social and economic ineqality.

Her pointed remarks caught his attention.

the city urgently needs a strategy to mitigate these risks

In this talk Prof Whittle will illustrate how his research has helped reduce risks associated with large urban underground construction projects and is providing guidance on the adaptation pathways to make cities more resilient to effects of climate change such as coastal flooding.

at the height of = at the peak of

take on responsibility 承担责任

It was precisely this opportunity to participate in public life that provided a stimulus for the brilliant unfolding of classical Greek culture. 正是这个参与公共生活的机会,为希腊古典文化的灿烂发展提供了刺激。

In contrast to mammals and birds, amphibians are unable to produce thermal energy through their metabolic activity, which would allow them to regulate their body temperature independent of the surrounding or ambient temperature.

A has been proven false because …

by far 到目前为止

The study shows that the more you aware of a product, there’s a greater chance you buy it.

Doing A may has negative/positive impacts on B, resulting in an overall loss of diversity.

Last but not least(最后但并非不重要) of these considerations is the effort and resources required in this type of action, which need to be justified by evidence of the likely benefits.

This makes appraisal(evaluation,评价) of the method very difficult. 这使得对该方法的评价非常困难。

OPEN THE DOOR TO SOMETHING: These discussions may well open the door to a peaceful solution.

Her fear caused her hands to be shaky(颤抖的).

Good food is essential to a healthy lifestyle. 好的食物对健康的生活方式至关重要。

She had a magnetic personality, everyone seemed attracted her. 她的性格很有磁性,似乎每个人都被她吸引。

In order to better focus on academics, the girl decided to spend more time studying.

The employer had a long list of qualifications for potential new hires.

He worked overtime to complete the project.

His favorite cliche is don’t count you chickens until they are hatched. 他最喜欢的陈词滥调是 “小鸡没孵出来之前不要数”。

wreak damage on 对…造成损害

appears to be suited to … 特别适合…

The methane escapes into the atmosphere, sending temperatures rocketing and triggering rapid climate change.

Violent storms ravage(摧残) the planet with flash floods and protracted droughts. 猛烈的风暴以洪水泛滥和长期干旱破坏地球。

This dramatic global warming has profound implications for the ancient mammals. 剧烈的全球变暖对古代哺乳动物有着深远的影响。

Shifting agriculture, often called slash-and-burn, was highly adaptive for savanna farmers without plows, for it allowed cereal farming with the minimal expenditure of energy.(花费最小的能量)

The lack of sources limits our knowledge, but not our curiosity.

The debates will continue as discoveries are made and new connections revealed.

lessen their regulatory burden 减轻其监管负担

International Labor Organization economists say some nations have come up with policies to lessen the impact of lower wages during the economic crisis. 国际劳工组织的经济学家说,一些国家已经制定了政策,以减轻经济危机期间工资较低的影响。

ascribe to/attribute to 归因于

So that’s I think the position that we ought to ascribe to the dualist. 所以我认为,这应归入二元论者的立场。

attribute to 归因于:将某事物归属于某人或某事的动作。

With a moderate to fairly high net energy yield, these systems emit to no heat-trapping carbon dioxide or other air pollutants and need no water for cooling; manufacturing produces little water polution.

A was not caused by B must due to C.

are so adj that …完整句子

addicted to 沉迷于

A caused by B pales in comparison to(与…比较显得苍白无力) the A caused C.

It is indispensable(必不可少) that …

From the single cells that make up the most basic organisms to the trillions of cells that constitute the complex structure of the human body, each and every living being on Earth is comprised of cells.

The discovery of the cell would not have been possible if not for advancements to the microscope.

He was a master microscope maker and perfected the design of the simple microscope (which only had a single lens), enabling it to magnify an object by around two hundred to three hundred times its original size.

devote 奉献. I devote myself to helping others. I wanted to devote more time to my family.

work force 劳动力

Living conditions don’t necessarily affect happiness and well-being.

I agree that money plays a large part in our happiness, but it is not the most important facor.

Technology Words

device = smartphone, portable DVD, MP3 player

Many people today spend hours using their electronic devices.

productivity = getting much work done

Technology allows businesses and workers to be more productive.

accessible = able to be used or readched

Many countries in the world don’t have accessible technology for people.

gadget = synonym, for device

Coffee shops are a common place students use their laptops and other gadgets.

top-of-the-line = the absolute best

Companies like Apple can provide their workers with top-of-the-line equipment

digital = data represented in discrete values

Young people doday stream digital music. Few use a CD tape or record player.

tech-savvy = being well skilled with technology

Today, it important to be tech savvy to get a better job.

Outdated devices can be donated to other people in need of technology.

application = software for specific purpose

The application What’s App is popular for people to text one another.

Google Cloud offers users a way to store data accessible from any device.

computer literate = knowing to use a computer

In the business world today, everyone must be computer literate.

Teams with cutting dege equiptment.

low-tech = using little technology

Countries with a low-tech economy are at a disadvantage.

Education Vocabulary

advanced study = study beyond a first degree

Students who earn a bachelor’s degree may go on to advanced studies.

keep up with = complete tasks on time

It’s critical to keep up with your homework at the university.

continuing education = education after a diploma is earned

Most jobs require workers to enroll in continuing education

fall behind = to not complete tasks on time

It is terrible to fall behind at school. It’s difficult to catch up.

e-learning = taking classes online.

More and more students are using e-learning to earn a diploma.

gap year/ year off = a year between two life events

Some students think taking a gap year is a great way to experience new things.

graduate = student who has earned a degree/diploma

Each year, new graduates fight to find a good job.

graduate = to earn a diploma

I hope to graduate by May of this year.

older / mature student = a student returning to school after years off

formal assessment(testing)

timed test taken in person

Most professions have formal assessment you must past.

critical thinking / problem solving = being skilled in finding solutions to problems

One advantage of going to the university is building critical thinking skills.

to study ___ (NOUN)

What did you study in school? I studied physics.

to keep abreast of = to know the leatest information in an area of study.

Once one graduates, they must keep abreast of the latest innovations.

to decide on = to make a choice

It’s true. It took me a while to decide on my course of study.

workforce ready = prepared with skills for a job.

For most people, going to the university gets them workforce ready.

These words and phrases can be used in many essay situations.

Global Economy Vocabulary

accelerate: to go faster, speed up

Last quarter, our business saw accelerated growth in the clothing sector.

consumption: buying and using goods

Americans expect a life with high consumption of products.

unprecedented: new, never happened before

The US stock market crash of 1929 was unprecedented. No one expected it.

dominate: to overcome with power

A monopoly occurs when one company dominates a sector of the economy.

compete(v): to try one’s best to win

Today, many businesses compete for part of the market share.

super power: a very strong figure in business

Microsoft is a superpower in the field.

trade off: a benefit in exchange for a loss

Credit cards are convenient, but the trade off is high interest debt.

sustain: to maintain, to prolong

The world is looking for a source of energy that can be sustained.

digital divide(n)

the imaginary line that separates those with form those without technology.

The digital divide is one reason poorer countries cannot compete globally.

human capital: workers

Few companies can be successful without investing in human capital.

multinational corporation(n): a company doing business in many countries

Starbucks is an example of a multinational corporation.

economic growth(n): increase in value of goods and services.

China is a country experiencing steady economic growth.

outsource(v): to use labor outside a company

To save money, companies often outsource jobs rather than hire more workers.

restrict: to limit, to hold back

Lack of education can restrict workers from better paying jobs.

standards of living 生活水平