Vocabulary: Plants


  • cyanobacteria 蓝细菌(first photosynthesizer)
  • hospitable 好客
  • thorn 荆棘
  • bark 树皮
  • spiral 螺线
  • stalk 茎, stem
  • lichens 地衣
  • moss
  • fungus
  • algae
  • seagrasses
  • symbiotic relationship
  • crank out a lot of chemicals
  • desiccation (drying out) 干涸
  • turbidity (density of particles in the water) 浊度
  • cellulose 纤维素(草,羊,牛可以消化)
  • ethanol 乙醇 alcohol 酒精
  • enzyme: a specific type of protein
  • yeast 酵母菌

Usually, shrubs are distinguished from trees by their height and multiple stems. Some shrubs are deciduous (e.g. hawthorn) and others evergreen (e.g. holly).

graft: to cause a plant to reproduce asexually by inserting one part of a plant into another plant.

prune: to cut or trim branches from a tree, bush, or shrub.

Their techniques are still used by modern farmers, such as crop rotation, pruning, grafting, seed selection, and manuring.

manuring 施肥

The earliest known attempts at agriculture may have been in the Fertile Crescent, or Mesopotamia.

The Middle Ages saw the development of a system of three-field crop rotation that helped preserve land fertility.

help do sth.

How Plants Meet Their Needs

Plants’ roots help anchor them to the ground and absorb water and nutrients.

The stem supports the plants andd takes water and nutrients to the leaves.

The leaves collect sunlight and perform photosynthesis to make the plant’s food.

  • root
  • transportation system
  • photosynthesis 光合作用
  • chloroplast 叶绿体
  • respiration 呼吸
  • Xylem 木质部: transport water and nutrients from the bottom to the top
  • phloem (植)韧皮部;筛部, carry the sugar from the leaves throughout the plant.

Parts of a Plant

  • root system: absorbs water and minerals 根系,地下部分
  • Shoot syste: 地上部分
  • Stem: supports the plant
  • Fruit: protects the seeds
  • Leaf(leaves): Performs photosynthesis
  • Flower: helps in reproduction
  • seeds
  • ground tissue 根组织
  • vascular tissue 导管组织
  • epidermis 上皮,表皮
  • primary root
  • lateral root
  • root hairs
  • root tip
  • root cap

root system function

  • Anchorage
  • Absorption
  • Storage
  • Transport
  • Hormones

Shoot system function

  • Photosynthesis
  • Reproduction
  • Storage
  • Transport
  • Hormones

Vascular Plants

  1. Seedless Vascular: ferns, lycophytes, monilophytes
  2. Gymnosperms 裸子植物: ginkgos, cyads, gnetophytes, conifers
  3. Angiosperms 被子植物: monocots, eudicots


water + carbon dioxide + light -> oxygen + sugar

How Do Plants Reproduce?

The anther is the male part that has the pollen. 花药是含有花粉的雄性部分。

The pistil is the female part the includes the stigma. 雌蕊是包括柱头的雌性部分。

When pollen reaches the stigma, the egg cells can be fertilized. 当花粉到达柱头时,卵细胞即可受精。

  • stamen:雄蕊, the male part of the flower that has two parts
  • stigma:柱头 The stigma is part of the female reproductive system of a flower.
  • pistil:雌蕊, the female part of the flower that has three parts
  • anther: 花药
  • pollen 花粉, tiby grains that are responsible for fertilizing a flower’s egg cells.
  • pollination: the transfer of pollen from the anther to the stigma
  • self-pollination
  • cross-pollination
  • insect pollinated flowers
  • wind pollinated flowers
  • nectary(蜜腺): produde nectar(花蜜), a sugary substance that insects feed on
  • mutualism: bees and flowers
  • ovary 子房
  • petal 花瓣
  • get stuck on 粘在
  • embryo 胚芽
  • germinate 发芽,发育

What are some kinds of plants that produce seeds?

Angiosperms(被子植物) are plants that produce both flowers and seeds.

The majority of plants on the Earth are angiosperms.

Pine trees are gymnosperms(裸子植物), so they produce seeds but not flowers or fruits.

Plants without Seeds

They are either vascular plants or nonvascular plants. 它们要么是维管植物,要么是非维管植物。 They use spores to reproduce. 它们利用孢子进行繁殖。

They have similar life cycles. spores -> new moss苔藓 plant -> male branch, female branch -> fertilized egg(egg cell+sperm) -> spore case -> spores

  • Ferns 蕨类
  • angiosperms and gymnosperms 被子植物和裸子植物
  • fronds 叶状体
  • mosses 苔藓
  • sexual reproduction 有性生殖
  • asexual reproduction 无性繁殖
  • spore 孢子
  • rhizome 根茎
  • vein 叶脉,茎脉


Plant Colonization 植物殖民

Colonization is one way in which plants can change the ecology of a site.


  • The species that first colonize a disturbed site are typically ones that produce a large number of efficiently dispersed seeds.
  • Producing seeds that geminate at various times over long periods allows some plants to colonize sites that only occasionally present the right conditions for growth.
  • The successive appearance and disappearance of species on a site is a result of variation in species’ rates of invasion, growth, and survival.

reproductive propagules (seeds, spores, and so on) germinate 发芽(种子) fermentate 发酵(酒) temporal sequence 时间序列 expose a coarse 暴露粗糙

A fertile, plowed field is rapidly invaded by a large variety of weeds, whereas a neighboring construction site from which the soil has been compacted or removed to expose a coarse, infertile parent material may remain virtually free of vegetation for many months or even years despite receiving the same input of seeds as the plowed field.

The Arrival of Plant Life in Hawaii

When the Hawaiian islands emerged from the sea as volcanoes, starting about five million years ago, they were far removed from other landmasses. Then, as blazing sunshine alternated with drenching rains, the harsh, barren surfaces of the black rocks slowly began to soften. Winds brought a variety of life-forms.

Spores light enough to float on the breezes were carried thousands of miles from more ancient lands and deposited at random across the bare mountain flanks. A few of these spores found a toehold on the dark, forbidding rocks and grew and began to work their transformation upon the land. Lichens were probably the first successful flora. These are not single individual plants; each one is a symbiotic combination of an alga and a fungus. The algae capture the Sun’s energy by photosynthesis and store it in organic molecules. The fungi absorb moisture and mineral salts from the rocks, passing these on in waste products that nourish algae. It is significant that the earliest living things that built communities on these islands are examples of symbiosis, a phenomenon that depends upon the close cooperation of two or more forms of life and a principle that is very important in island communities.

Lichens helped to speed the decomposition of the hard rock surfaces, preparing a soft bed of soil that was abundantly supplied with minerals (that had been carried in the molten rock from the bowels of Earth). Now, other forms of life could take hold: ferns and mosses (two of the most ancient types of land plants) that flourish even in rock crevices(缝). These plants propagate(扩散,繁殖) by producing spores-tiny fertilized cells that contain all the instructions for making a new plant - but the spores are unprotected by any outer coating and carry no supply of nutrient. So since the chances of survival for any individual spore are small, the plants have to produce many spores in order to propagate. Vast numbers of them fall on the ground beneath the mother plants. Sometimes they are carried farther afield by water or by wind. But only those few spores that settle down in very favorable locations can start new life; the vast majority fall on barren ground. By force of sheer numbers, however, the mosses and ferns reached Hawaii, survived, and multiplied. Some species developed great size, becoming tree ferns that even now grow in the Hawaiian forests.

Many millions of years after ferns evolved (but long before the Hawaiian Island were born from the sea), another kind of flora evolved on Earth: the seed-bearing plants(有种子的植物). This was a wonderful biological invention. The seed has an outer coating that surrounds the genetic material of the new plant, and inside this covering is a concentrated supply of nutrients. Thus, the speed’s chances of survival are greatly enhanced over those of the naked spore. One type of seed-bearing plant, the angiosperm, includes all forms of blooming(开花) vegetation. In the angiosperm(被子植物) the seeds are wrapped in an additional layer of covering. Some of these coats are hard-like the shell of a nut-for extra protection. Some are soft and tempting(诱人的), like a peach or a cherry. In some angiosperm the seeds are equipped with gossamer wings(薄纱的翅膀), like the dandelion and milkweed seeds. These new characteristics offered better ways for the seeds to move to new habitats. They could travel through the air, float in water, and lie dormant for many months.

Plants with large, buoyant(漂浮的) seeds-like coconuts-drift on ocean currents and are washed up on the shores. Remarkably resistant to the vicissitudes(变迁) of ocean travel, they can survive prolonged immersion in saltwater. When they come to rest on warm beaches and the conditions are favorable, the seed coats softer. Nourished by their imported supply of nutrients, the young plants push out their roots and establish their place in the sun.

By means of these seeds, plants spread more widely to new locations, even to isolated islands like the Hawaiian archipelago(群岛), which lies more than 2,000 miles west of California and 3,500 miles east of Japan. The seeds of grasses, flowers, and blooming trees made the long trips to these islands. (Grasses are simple forms of angiosperms that bear their encapsulated seeds on long stalks.) In a surprisingly short time, angiosperms filed many of the land areas on Hawaii that had been bare.

The size of Root system