​​The word geology means ‘Study of the Earth’. Also known as geoscience or earth science, Geology is the primary Earth science and looks at how the earth formed, its structure and composition, and the types of processes acting on it.


Words and Phrases

  • Atmosphere 大气层
  • atom 原子,sphere 球体
  • crust 地壳
  • mantle 地幔
  • inner core
  • outer core
  • cross section
  • tropic of Capricon/南回归线
  • tropic of Cancer/北回归线
  • plateau 高原
  • bolide (either a comet or an asteroid) 火球(可能撞击地球,可能导致物种大灭绝)
  • plains 平原
  • desert 沙漠
  • Range 山脉
  • equator/赤道
  • strata 地层
  • latitude/longitude/altitude 纬度/经度/高度
  • sphere 半球, southern hemisphere
  • Arctic circle/North pole
  • canyon 大峡谷
  • fissure (岩石或地面)裂缝,缝隙
  • lava/magma 岩浆
  • Paleolithic 旧石器时代
  • sediment 沉积物
  • silt 淤泥
  • solid 固体的
  • volcano 火山
  • ultraviolet 紫外线
  • vegetation 蔬菜
  • bleak 荒凉的,光秃秃的
  • calorie 卡路里
  • calcite 方解石
  • limestone
  • dating technique 判断年代的技术
  • condensation 浓缩,凝结
  • crude 天然的
  • crush 压
  • crust 硬的表面
  • dormant 休眠的
  • drain 流走 n. 下水管
  • drift 漂流
  • drill 钻
  • dune 沙丘
  • ruins 废墟
  • emblem 象征 The stylized stone sculptures known as “Zimbabwe Birds”, for example, remain an emblem of Zimbabwe, appearing on the nation’s flag, currency, and coats of arms.
  • coats of arms: 徽章
  • demographics 人口统计
  • Population dynamics 人口变动
  • dating techniques 判断年代技术
  • igneous 火的,火成的,火成岩
  • Petroleum 石油
  • permeable adj. 透水的(per- 表穿透)
  • molecular attraction 分子吸引
  • quartz or carbonate minerals 石英或碳酸盐矿物(碳酸钙等)
  • fastened to … 固定到 …
  • fasten 绑住
  • glide 滑行
  • metamorphic 变质的
  • watercourse 水道 aqueduct
  • volatile 易挥发的
  • refractory 耐火
  • lithophile 亲石的
  • siderophile 嗜铁菌
  • chalcophile 亲铜族
  • accretes 增生
  • planetesimals 星子(collisions of planetesimals build up into Terrestrial planets)
  • Gases forms giant outer planets
  • lithosphere
  • asthenosphere 软流圈
  • graphite 石墨
  • lattice 格子
  • crystals 晶体
  • gemstone 宝石💎
  • Olivine 橄榄石
  • Calcite 方解石(碳酸钙):Calcite (CaCO3) is the main mineral in carbonates and shells of organisms
  • Dolomite 白云石
  • igneous rock 火成岩
  • speckles 斑点
  • sulfur 硫磺
  • Courtesy of Geological Society of America. Used with permission. 由美国地质学会提供.经许可使用。
  • subduction 俯冲
  • frigid 寒冷
  • furnace 炉子
  • gasoline 汽油
  • excursion 远足,短途旅行
  • ashore 岸上
  • expedition 远征,考察
  • bituminous coal 烟煤
  • convection 对流
  • radioactive heat
  • stratigraphy 地层学
  • scorching hot rock 灼热的岩石
  • cataclysm 大灾变
  • landmasses 大陆
  • land surface 地面

Solar System

  • planetesimals 星子(collisions of planetesimals build up into Terrestrial planets)
  • Gases forms giant outer planets
  • The inner planets are small and rocky
  • The four giant outer planets and their moons are gaseous, with rocky cores
  • Pluto is snowball of methane, water and rock.


  1. Solid iron inner core
  2. liquid iron outer core
  3. Mantle(rigid 死板的, asthenosphere 软流圈)
  4. Crust(lithosphere 岩石圈)

The crust is Earth’s hard surface and is where humans live.

The mantle is Earth’s thickest layer and is divided into a solid part and a liquid part.

The core is the innermost layer of Earth and is divided into the inner core and the outer core.

plate tectonics 板块构造

plates collide, they may form mountain chains.

The movement of the plates is also what causes earthquakes and volcanoes.

Introduction to Minerals(矿石,矿物质)

Minerals are the building blocks of rocks. 2000 varieties on earth.

Minerals record the formation and history of a rock and determine it’s physical and chemical characteristics.

There are thousands of minerals. They are separated into groups based on their crystal structure and chemistry.

Five Criteria for Minerals:

  1. Solid
  2. Naturally Pccurring
  3. Inorganic. not living or made from living things
  4. Fixed Chemical Formula. the substance must have a fixed chemical formula, made of specific elements.
  5. Specific Atomic Arrangement. The atoms that make up the substance must be arranged in an orderly structure.
  • silicon 硅
  • silicates 硅酸盐
  • Covalent bonds 共价键
  • cation 阳离子
  • Anions 阴离子
  • Courtesy 礼貌
  • halite 岩盐
  • Tetrahedrons 四面体
  • flint 燧石
  • quartz 石英
  • agate 玛瑙

Silicates are the most comon & important rock forming minerals on Earth. 硅酸盐是地球上最常见和最重要的造岩矿物。

Criteria to identify minerals:

  • hardness 硬度
  • density 密度
  • habit
  • cleavage 分裂
  • color/streak
  • association
  • taste 品尝
  • odor 气味

Diamond 钻石最硬(C),the hardest mineral that exists on Earth.

Pencil(graphite) 石墨

quartz 石英(二氧化硅): the most abundunt rocks found on the earth’s surface. cutting tools, gemstones, glass making(window, glass)

Agate 玛瑙

fluorite(萤石): in tooth paste

talc 滑石:baby powder

selenite gypsum 亚硒酸盐石膏 石膏(刮腻墙)

silica tetrahedra 二氧化硅四面体

All the physical properties of a mineral result from the minerals’s internal arrangement of atoms.


  • marble 大理石(建筑)
  • granite 花岗岩
  • quartz 石英石
  • mica 云母
  • emeraid 绿宝石
  • obsidian 黑曜石(锋利的切割工具,火山喷发玻璃,来自中美洲)
  • basalt 玄武岩
  • pumice 多空浮岩(浮石,空洞多,浮在水上,建筑材料,褪猪毛)
  • sandstone 砂岩
  • limestone 石灰石,写字,喀斯特地貌
  • lime 青柠
  • limpid 清澈的(limestone可以净化水)
  • chalk 粉笔,石膏(比石灰石松软),可写字
  • calcium 钙
  • California 加州(白石渡口)
  • flint 燧石
  • conglomerate 砾岩
  • coal 煤
  • slate 板岩(la- 横向)
  • schist 片岩
  • gneiss 片麻岩
  • copper 红铜
  • brozone 青铜(copper+tin,harder than copper)
  • tin 锡(饮料罐)
  • aluminium 铝(可塑性,可其他金属,轻,强度高)
  • sulfur 硫
  • copper ore 铜矿
  • lithosphere 岩石圈
  • amethyst
  • lapis lazuli

pumice 多空浮岩(igneous rocks, 浮石,空洞多,浮在水上,建筑材料,褪猪毛)

Igneous Rocks 火成岩

Metamorphic Rocks 变质岩

meta-: variants/transformation

Sedimentary Rocks 沉积岩

Rock Structure and Deformation 岩石结构与变形

  • Tensional forces stretch a body and tend to pull it apart

  • compressive forces squeeze and shorten a body

  • shearing forces, push two sides in opposite directions

  • strike-slip fault 走滑断层

  • plateau 高原

  • valley and ridge 山谷和山脊

  • piedmont

  • coastal plain 沿海平原

  • continental shelf 陆架

Structural Geology - the study of rock deformation. Features of rock deformation are collectively referred to as structure or structural features.

Stress压力 and strain拉紧 - terms used to describe the type of rock deformation

3 Types of Differential Stress:

  1. Tension - a stretching stress. Rocks have very little strength under tensional stress and break apart easily.
  2. Compression - a squeezing stress. Rocks are relatively strong under compression.
  3. Shear - stress operates in opposite directions across the body

3 Types of Strain:

  1. Elastic strain /deformation
  2. Plastic strain/ ductile deformation
  3. Brittle strain/deformation

Geologic Time: Relative versus Absolute Dating

Volcanoes 🌋

Plate Tectonics 板块构造

  • continental rifting 大陆裂谷
  • plate tectonics 板块运动
  • continental drift 大陆漂移
  • crust 地壳
  • mantle 地幔
  • core 地核
  • mid-ocean ridge
  • subduction zone
  • converge 汇聚
  • split apart 分开
  • dive under 上下
  • slide past 左右

Continental Crust Formation 大陆地壳形成

Oceanic Crust Formation 大洋地壳的形成


Topography 地形

Introduction to Geologic Mapping


erosion = river incision + soil creep


Landslides and Debris Flows 山体滑坡和泥石流

clogge 堵塞

Glaciers 冰川

  • Cirque glacier 冰斗冰川
  • Valley glacier
  • East Antarctic Ice Sheet

Climate through Geologic History

  • The green house effect
  • Thermohaline Circulation 温盐环流
  • Heinrich events


  • atmosphere: the layers of air that surround Earth, mainly including: nitrogen and oxygen
  • most weather occurs in the troposphere 对流层
  1. troposphere 对流层(8-15 KM close to Earth’s surface): the layer of the atmosphere closet to Earth’s surface
  2. stratosphere 平流(15-50 KM+): the layer of the atmosphere that contains the ozone layer
  3. mesosphere 中间层(50-80 KM+): the layer of the atmosphere that has the coldest temperatures
  4. thermosphere 热层(80-600 KM+, extremely hot 1200C, international space station): the layer of the atmosphere where space begins

Ozone absorbs ultraviolet(UV) radiation from the sun. The ozone layer helps protect life on Earth’s surface from the sun’s harmful UV radiation.

Earth History and Geobiology

We think the water was added by the late heavy bombardment event.

  • evolution of life on earth
  • Mass extinction

Earth Science and Society

Comparative Planetology

How Does Radiocarbon Dating Work?

Scientists can read it by looking the ratio of two different types of carbon atoms.

  • Carbon 12: 6 protons + 6 nuetrons
  • Carbon 14: 6 protons + 8 nuetrons(unstable)

So, once an animal dies, the Carbon 14 in its body will start to go away. Every 5,730 years on average, about half of the Carbon 14 atoms will decay into nitrogen. By contrast, the amount of Carbon 12 it has will stay the same.

By measuring the ratio of Carbon 14 and Carbon 12, we can measure how many thousands of years have passed since the animal died.

Carbon dating works for fossils up to about 60,000 years old. For older fossils, scientists use unstable elements that have much longer half-lives.


  • definition
  • features
  • applications
  • pratices
  • profess’s attitude
  • Igneous Rocks 火成岩
  • Petroleum 石油



Teotihuacan was due to excavating and trading the rich deposits of obsidian around the city. Obsidian is a hard volcanic rock that was highly valued as a cutting tool.

Teotihuacano merchants traded (exported) obsidian to surrounding cultures in exchange for goods and services imported to Teotihuacano settlements.

Igneous Rocks 火成岩(volcanic rocks)

Igneous rocks are “fire-born,” meaning that they are formed from the cooling and solidification of molten (melted) rock. The word igneous derives from ignis, the Latin word for “fire.” Molten rock material is known as magma until it is erupted onto the surface when it then is termed lava.

The rocks that make up the maximum volumn of the Earth’s crust are called igneous rocks.

Metamorphic rocks 变质岩

Sedimentary rocks 沉积岩

Petroleum 石油(包括天然气) TPO阅读


Petroleum is defined as a gaseous, liquid, and semisolid naturally occurring substance that consists chiefly of hydrocarbons (chemical compounds of carbon and hydrogen).

Petroleum is therefore a term that includes both oil and natural gas. Petroleum is nearly always found in marine sedimentary rocks. In the ocean, microscopic phytoplankton (tiny floating plants) and bacteria (simple, single-celled organisms) are the principal sources of organic matter that is trapped and buried in sediment. Most of the organic matter is buried in clay that is slowly converted to a fine-grained sedimentary rock known as shale. During this conversion, organic compounds are transformed to oil and natural gas.

  • plankton: 浮游生物,小动物小植物。An organism is considered plankton if it is carried by tides and currents, and cannot swim well enough to move against these forces.
  • phytoplankton: 浮游植物。tiny floating plants
  • zooplankton: 浮游动物。small, aquatic microorganisms in the water column that include crustaceans, rotifers, open water insect larvae and aquatic mites.
  • bacteria: simple, single-celled organisms

the base of the food chain (plankton in the ocean, plants on land)

Petroleum, which includes both oil and natural gas, can be a gaseous, liquid, or semi solid substance.


Petroleum comes from organic matter that has undergone a complex series of chemical changes under the seafloor.

Although most of the petroleum formed leaks away into the ocean, some migrates from shale to sandstone or limestone, and is caught in pools.

It is difficult to estimate the total amount of petroleum in the world, but experts believe that 1,500-3,000 billion barrels will eventually be discovered.

It is now well established that petroleum migrates through aquifers and can become trapped in reservoirs.

Continental Drift Theory(大陆板块漂移)


The Origin of Life 生命的起源和早期大气成分,海洋从何而来

The oceans could derived from the condenser of the water vapor the the ancient atmosphere, which could came from the bombardment of asteroids and comets against earth.

As the temperature drops, the water vapor transformed into water drops, finally gathered and formed the ocean.

The complex organic materials, which are essential to life, could brought from asteroids and comets.

Stream Deposits

  • Particles tend to be largest upstream and smallest downstream, probably because water flowing downstream erodes fine sediment from the larger particles.
  • Deposits of sediment are found where flow velocity decreases, and when there is excessive sediment a stream may become braided, dividing into several channels.
  • Deltas, which are formed where streams enter lakes or the ocean, are naturally unstable landforms that can extend over a large area.

Wrong: According to paragraph 2, which of the following is true about bars in streams?

They often last no more than a year.

Bars, which are elongated mounds of sediment, are transient features that form in the stream channel and on the banks. They commonly form in one year and erode the next. Rivers used for commercial navigation must be recharted frequently because bars shift from year to year.

  • gravel: Gravel (/ˈɡrævəl/) is a loose aggregation of rock fragments. Gravel occurs naturally on Earth as a result of sedimentary and erosive geological processes; it is also produced in large quantities commercially as crushed stone.

Many mountain streams are choked with boulders and cobbles, but far downstream, their deltas are composed mainly of fine silt and clay.

Imagine a winding stream. 想象一下蜿蜒的溪流。

as a flood wanes 当洪水退去时

Surface Fluids on Venus and Earth

Because Venus lost the water it originally had, most of its carbon dioxide remained in its atmosphere, causing the planet to become very warm.

On Earth, the dominance of river valley landscapes and the existence of life are due to the planet’s hydrologic cycle.

On Earth, chemical reactions involving fluids remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere by giving rise to carbonate rocks, and winds energized by gravity flow systems move fine particles from one place to another.

The Rock Cycle

  • cement: 胶结

  • igneous rocks: form when molten rock cools and hardens; 火成岩:一类通过岩浆或熔岩的凝固和结晶形成的岩石。这些岩石通常在地壳深处或通过火山活动在地表形成。

  • metamorphic rocks: form when rocks are changed by heat and pressure; 变质岩:由于地质作用而形成的岩石,通常具有层状结构和变形纹理。

  • Sedimentary rocks: form when sediment is compressed into rocks; 沉积岩:由沉积物经过压实、胶结等作用形成的岩石。

The rock cycle is the interconnected system of processes that causes rocks to change over time. Eventually the processes in the rock cycle can cause one rock to change into each different type.

Cementation 固化: a process that causes sediments to stick together.

Porcesses like cementation, compaction, weathering and erosion cause the rocks that make up Earth’s surface to constantly shift.

This puts them under huge amounts of heat and pressure, and eventually, all the heat and pressure starts to change these rocks through a process called metamorphism.

This head and pressure cause igneous and sedimentary rocks to transform into metamorphic rocks.

  • Granite: 花岗岩
  • Sandstone: 砂岩
  • Gneiss:片麻岩


  • stranded 搁浅
  • portions 部分
  • ice shelf 冰架(冰的表面)

The Formation of Volcanic Islands

  • A. Our understanding of volcanic islands comes from Daly’s and Wilson’s observations of the Hawaiian Islands, which was later confirmed by plate-tectonic theory.
  • B. The hot-spot trails formed by volcanic island chains indicate the positions of tectonic plates as for back as the present ocean basins have existed.
  • E. Volcanic island chains such as the Hawaiian Islands form in the interior of a tectonic plate as the plate moves over a fixed volcanic source in the mantle.

mantle plumes 地幔柱导致火山岛的形成

Saving Soil and Cropland

  • tillage 耕地