Geography 地理学

Geography is a study of places and the relationships between people and their environments.

sustainability: use of resources in such a manner that they will never be exhausted.



  • swamp n/v 沼泽(罗马地区)
  • meadow 草地;牧场(prado 法语草地,丰田普拉多)
  • oasis 绿洲
  • coral reef 珊瑚礁(澳大利亚大堡礁,珊瑚是小动物)
  • esturay 入海口
  • aquifer 含水层(fer - take)
  • volcano 火山
  • avalanche
  • stratigraphy 地质学
  • mater 物质
  • antimatter(反物质): which is like regular matter in every way except with the opposite electrical charge.
  • 地图集 (Atlas)
  • Pen Pals 笔友

Climatic Regions

Have students use a MapMaker map of the United States to divide the United States into climatic regions. Assign groups of students to each region. How do people from different climatic regions dress? What different foods do they eat? Name some overlapping characteristics among the regions. Have students do the same exercise for language regions in Europe.

Research a Region

Have students study a new region each week for five weeks. Research the climate, landforms, population, cultural groups, and interesting places from that region. Others could be economy, transportation, education and so on.

Then Universe and Earth

Structure of the Universe

Galaxies, galaxy groups and clusters, superclusters, and galactic walls are arranged in twisting, threadlike structures called the cosmic web. The web forms as the gravitational attraction of the universe’s matter draws larger and larger objects together.

The Origin of the Universe(Big Bang Theory)

Explosion created matter, energy, space and time. What happend next was two major statges of the universe’s evolution, called the Radiation Ear and Matter Ear.

Superforce: Gravity, strong nuclear, weak, electromagnetic.

The best-supported theory of our universe’s origin centers on an event known as the big bang. This theory was born of the observation that other galaxies are moving away from our own at great speed in all directions, as if they had all been propelled by an ancient explosive force.

Radiation in the early universe was so intense that colliding photons could form pairs of particles made of matter and antimatter, which is like regular matter in every way except with the opposite electrical charge. It’s thought that the early universe contained equal amounts of matter and antimatter. But as the universe cooled, photons no longer packed enough punch to make matter-antimatter pairs. So like an extreme game of musical chairs, many particles of matter and antimatter paired off and annihilated one another.

  • genesis: origin

距离: 天文单位,光年与秒差距

  • 天文单位(Astronomical unit, AU):地球与太阳的平均距离定义,149 597 871 KM
  • 光年(light year): 9.4605284 × 10^15 米, a light-year is the distance that light travels in a vacuum in one Julian year (365.25 days).
  • 秒差距(英语:parsec,符号为pc)是一个宇宙距离尺度,用以测量太阳系以外天体的长度单位。1秒差距约为3.26光年、206,000天文单位或31兆公里(19兆英里)。绝大多数位于距太阳500秒差距(1630光年)内的恒星,可以在夜空中以肉眼看见。

宇宙中的三洞(black hole, white hole, wormhole)

The complete Schwarzschild geometry consists of a black hole, a white hole, and two Universes connected at their horizons by a wormhole.

A black hole is a region of spacetime where gravity is so strong that nothing, including light and other electromagnetic waves, is capable of possessing enough energy to escape it.

In general relativity, a white hole is a hypothetical region of spacetime and singularity that cannot be entered from the outside, although energy-matter, light and information can escape from it. In this sense, it is the reverse of a black hole, from which energy-matter, light and information cannot escape.

A wormhole is a hypothetical structure connecting disparate points in spacetime, and is based on a special solution of the Einstein field equations.

Galaxy 星系

A galaxy is a system of stars, stellar remnants, interstellar gas, dust, and dark matter bound together by gravity.

Star 恒星

A star is a luminous spheroid of plasma held together by self-gravity. The nearest star to Earth is the Sun. Many other stars are visible to the naked eye at night; their immense distances from Earth make them appear as fixed points of light. The most prominent stars have been categorised into constellations and asterisms, and many of the brightest stars have proper names. Astronomers have assembled star catalogues that identify the known stars and provide standardized stellar designations. The observable universe contains an estimated 1022 to 1024 stars. Only about 4,000 of these stars are visible to the naked eye—all within the Milky Way galaxy.

A star’s life begins with the gravitational collapse of a gaseous nebula of material largely comprising hydrogen, helium, and trace heavier elements. Its total mass mainly determines its evolution and eventual fate. A star shines for most of its active life due to the thermonuclear fusion of hydrogen into helium in its core. This process releases energy that traverses the star’s interior and radiates into outer space. At the end of a star’s lifetime as a fusor, its core becomes a stellar remnant: a white dwarf, a neutron star, or—if it is sufficiently massive—a black hole.

恒星的演变 Stellar evolution

Stellar evolution is the process by which a star changes over the course of time. Depending on the mass of the star, its lifetime can range from a few million years for the most massive to trillions of years for the least massive, which is considerably longer than the current age of the universe.

Sun(hydrogen, helium)

The Sun is the star at the center of the Solar System. It is a massive, hot ball of plasma, inflated and heated by energy produced by nuclear fusion reactions at its core. Part of this energy is emitted from its surface as visible light, ultraviolet, and infrared radiation, providing most of the energy for life on Earth. The Sun has been an object of veneration in many cultures. It has been a central subject for astronomical research since antiquity.

太阳是位于太阳系中心的恒星。它是一个近乎完美的热等离子体理想球体,通过其核心的核聚变反应加热到白炽。太阳主要以可见光、紫外线和红外线的形式辐射能量,是地球上生命最重要的能量来源。 太阳的半径大约是695,000千米,或地球半径的109倍。它的质量大约是地球的330,000倍,约占太阳系总质量的99.86%。

太阳黑子(sunspot)和耀斑(Solar flare)

Sunspots are areas where the magnetic field is about 2,500 times stronger than Earth’s, much higher than anywhere else on the Sun. Because of the strong magnetic field, the magnetic pressure increases while the surrounding atmospheric pressure decreases.


耀斑是在太阳的盘面或边缘观测到的突发闪光现象,它会释放出高达6 × 10²⁵焦耳的巨大能量。

A solar flare is a relatively intense, localized emission of electromagnetic radiation in the Sun’s atmosphere. Flares occur in active regions and are often, but not always, accompanied by coronal mass ejections, solar particle events, and other eruptive solar phenomena. The occurrence of solar flares varies with the 11-year solar cycle.

Solar Wind

Solar Wind. The solar wind continuously flows outward from the Sun and consists mainly of protons and electrons in a state known as a plasma. Solar magnetic field is embedded in the plasma and flows outward with the solar wind. Different regions on the Sun produce solar wind of different speeds and densities.

The solar wind is a stream of charged particles released from the upper atmosphere of the Sun, called the corona.

This flow of particles, called the “solar wind,” has an enormous impact on our lives. It protects us from stray cosmic rays coming from elsewhere in the galaxy—but the effects of storms on the sun’s surface can also affect our telecommunications networks.

The solar wind is a powerful stream of particles ejected by the sun. Earth’s magnetic fields, displayed in blue, protect the planet from the solar wind. Solar wind causes the colorful auroras around the poles as it interacts with Earth’s magnetosphere. Solar wind and other “space weather” can disrupt GPS and communication satellites.

Plasma 等离子体

Plasma is one of four fundamental states of matter (the other three being solid, liquid, and gas) characterized by the presence of a significant portion of charged particles in any combination of ions or electrons. It is the most abundant form of ordinary matter in the universe, mostly in stars (including the Sun), but also dominating the rarefied intracluster medium and intergalactic medium.

The Oringin of Earth

The Earth formed over 4.6 billion years ago out of a mixture of dust and gas around the young sun. It grew larger thanks to countless collisions between dust particles, asteroids, and other growing planets, including one last giant impact that threw enough rock, gas, and dust into space to form the moon.

Geologic Ages 地质年代

The geologic time scale or geological time scale (GTS) is a representation of time based on the rock record of Earth.

板块构造论 (Plate tectonics)

Plate tectonics is the theory that Earth’s outer shell is divided into large slabs of solid rock, called “plates,” that glide over Earth’s mantle, the rocky inner layer above Earth’s core. Earth’s solid outer layer, which includes the crust and the uppermost mantle, is called the lithosphere.


地热(Geothermal energy)

Geothermal energy is heat energy from the earth—Geo (earth) + thermal (heat). Geothermal resources are reservoirs of hot water that exist or are humanmade at varying temperatures and depths below the earth’s surface.


Volcanos 火山

A volcano is a rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object, such as Earth, that allows hot lava, volcanic ash, and gases to escape from a magma chamber below the surface.

On Earth, volcanoes are most often found where tectonic plates are diverging or converging, and because most of Earth’s plate boundaries are underwater, most volcanoes are found underwater. For example, a mid-ocean ridge, such as the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, has volcanoes caused by divergent tectonic plates whereas the Pacific Ring of Fire has volcanoes caused by convergent tectonic plates.

Earthquakes 地震

An earthquake – also called a quake, tremor, or temblor – is the shaking of the Earth’s surface resulting from a sudden release of energy in the lithosphere that creates seismic(地震) waves.

泥石流 Mudflows and landslides

Mudflows can be caused by unusually heavy rains or a sudden thaw. They consist mainly of mud and water plus fragments of rock and other debris, so they often behave like floods. They can move houses off their foundations or bury a place within minutes because of incredibly strong currents.

Landslide is a more general term than mudflow. It refers to the gravity-driven failure and subsequent movement downslope of any types of surface movement of soil, rock, or other debris. The term incorporates earth slides, rock falls, flows, and mudslides, amongst other categories of hillslope mass movements.[12] They do not have to be as fluid as a mudflow.

极光 aurora


Auroras are the result of disturbances in the magnetosphere caused by the solar wind. Major disturbances result from enhancements in the speed of the solar wind from coronal holes and coronal mass ejections.

An aurora is a natural light display that shimmers in the sky. Auroras are only visible at night, and usually only appear in lower polar regions.

潮汐 Tide

The alternating advance and retreat of seawater along a coastline is called a tide. High tide is when water advances to its furthest extent onto the shoreline. Low tide is when it recedes to its furthest extent. Some freshwater rivers and lakes can have tides, too.

The Formation of Lakes

The huge masses of ice carved out great pits and scrubbed the land as they moved slowly along. When the glaciers melted, water filled those depressions, forming lakes. Glaciers also carved deep valleys and deposited large quantities of earth, pebbles, and boulders as they melted.

Rain, snow, melting of ice flow into basin(low lying land).

  • small lake = pond
  • Big lake = sea


  • fresh water
    • Rain
    • snow
    • melting of ice
    • Groundwater seepage渗流;渗漏;渗液
  • Salt water
    • sea
    • ocean

Open lake: close lake:

How lakes are formed?(basic)

  1. Erosion by rivers & stream
  2. Tectonic activity(earthquake)
  3. Volcanic eruption
  4. Glacier movement
  5. Artifical lake(dam, digging)

七大洲 Seven Continents

洲 (Continent)

A continent is one of Earth’s seven main divisions of land. The continents are, from largest to smallest: Asia, Africa, North America, South America, Antarctica, Europe, and Australia.

Prime Meridian(本初子午线) divides earth into western hemisphere and eastern hemisphere.


the largest land.

  • total number of countries: 48
  • most populated countries: India & China
  • Largest country: Russia
  • Smallest Asina country: Maldives
  • 黄种人:蒙古人
  • 喜马拉雅山脉 Himalayas


  • Nile river
  • The Sahara 撒哈拉大沙漠
  • total countries: 54
  • most populated country: Nigeria
  • least populated country and smallest country: Seychelles
  • largest country: algeria
  • 黑人
  • 很多沙漠

North America

  • Greenland(langest island)
  • Lake Superior(largest fresh water lake)
  • total number of countries: 23
  • most populated country: USA
  • largest country: Canada
  • least populated and smallest country: Saint Kitts & Nevis
  • 落基山脉(The Rocky Mountains)
  • 英法殖民地
  • 加拿大有很多说法语
  • 英语和法语都是加拿大的官方语言,其中56.9%的人口以英语为第一语言,21.3%的人口以法语为第一语言。
  • 美国的主要语言:英語 80%, 西班牙語 12.4%

South Ameraca

  • Panama 巴拿马运河
  • The Atacama: Wrold’s driest desert
  • Amazon: 2nd largest river
  • total number of countries: 12
  • largest & most populated country: Brazil
  • smallest & least populated country: Suriname
  • other big countries: Peru & Argentina
  • Andes 安第斯山脉
  • 大部分是,西班牙和葡萄牙殖民地


  • Most driest & windiest continent actually it’s a desert.
  • Most coldest continent, covered with ice and snow
  • Highest elevation among all the continents. and Mt. Vinson is the tallest mountain of Antarctica.
  • 用于科考,非军事活动,大部分被冰覆盖


  • Eurasia
  • Europe and Asia both separated by Ural Mountains
  • Mediterranean sea separates Europe and Africa
  • total number of countries: 50
  • Largest & least populated country: Russia
  • Smallest & least populatd country : Vatican Ciry
  • big countries: Ukraine, France
  • 高加索,白人
  • alps 阿尔卑斯山脉
  • 地中海气候:冬季温暖湿润,夏季炎热少雨



  • smallest continent
  • both a continent and a country
  • largest country in the world without any land borders
  • Great Barrier Reef: biggest coral reef in the world
  • Fraser Island: World’s largest sand island

14 island countries including Australia, New Zealand and Fiji are known as Oceania.

Four Oceans

Pacific Ocean

Atlantic Ocean

Indian Ocean

Arctic Ocean

Climate and Environment



Hardy mosses, lichens, and shrubs are the only plants that can survive here. 耐寒的苔藓、地衣和灌木是唯一能在这里生存的植物。

TAIGA(in Russia, coniferous forest)

Evergreen trees, such as fir, spruce, and pine,

Atmosphere 大气层/大气圈

  • weather 天气
  • consists of 78% nitrogen and 21% oxigen, a little carbon dioxide
  • ozone
  • exosphere 外太空
  • thermosphere 温层
  • aurora 极光(high energy particals emitted from Sun hit atmosphere)
  • ionosphere 电离层
  • ultraviolet rays 紫外线(两栖动物杀菌,多了晒伤皮肤)
  • mesosphere 中间层
  • stratosphere 平流层
  • troposphere 对流层
  • ozone 臭氧层(阻挡紫外线):Ozone in the stratosphere, known as the “ozone layer,” occurs naturally and forms a protective barrier that prevents ultraviolet sunlight (UV-B) radiation from the sun from reaching the Earth’s surface and harming plant and animal life.
  • vacuum 真空
  • electromagnetic wave

Weather & Climate

  • sleet 雨夹雪
  • shower 淋浴;淋浴间;淋浴器;阵雨;阵雪;送礼聚会;一大批
  • hail 冰雹
  • sunny 晴朗的
  • dry/arid/drought 干燥/干旱
  • wet
  • swamper n/v 沼泽(罗马地区)
  • windy 风
  • gale 更大的风
  • gallop 马的飞驰
  • amble 马遛弯儿

climate zones 气候带

Climate zone map

  • Tropical climates are close to the equator and have high temperatures and rainfall.
  • Dry climates are immediately north and south of the tropical zone.
  • Temperate climates are north and south of the dry zone, although they often overlap in latitude with continental climates in North America and Asia. These continental climates are less influenced by oceans and may have wider climate extremes.
  • Polar climates are only in the Arctic and Antarctic regions.

Tropical rainforest climate

We find tropical rainforest climates in:

  • South America
  • Africa
  • South-east Asia

Lying either side of the equator, we characterise tropical rainforest climates by high temperatures and year-round rainfall.

Average temperatures are usually around 20–30 °C, with minor variation over the year.

Rainfall is over 60 mm of rain in every month, giving rise to thick jungles and some of the highest biodiversity seen on land.

Mediterranean climate

A Mediterranean climate is a specific type of temperate climate, characterised by dry summers and mild, wet winters.

Temperate climate

  • Most of Western Europe
  • Western and eastern regions of USA
  • Eastern China

We define temperate zones according to temperature. Their coldest month averages between 0 °C and 18 °C, but at least one month averages above 10 °C.

Desert climate

Subtropics have high pressure, hence no clouds. Extremly dry, large temperature swings. Deserts have some of the hottest temperatures on Earth, but many will drop below freezing at night.

Though normally associated with hot, sandy environments, cold deserts also occur in many countries. The Gobi Desert of East Asia is one example, where annual average temperatures can be below 0 °C.

Polar climate

Prolonged cold defines a polar climate, with no months of the year averaging above 10 °C.

Tundra climate

If the warmest month in an area averages between 0 °C and 10 °C, we classify it as a tundra.

In tundra climates, some plant life can grow, but the growing season is too short for trees. Instead, you’ll find dwarf shrubs, grasses, and other small plants.

Animals in tundra climates have adapted to the cold and include reindeer, musk ox, and Arctic hare.




信风 (赤道附近东风,比较固定,贸易风,Trade winds):从副热带高气压带吹向赤道低气压带的定向风。The trade winds or easterlies are permanent east-to-west prevailing winds that flow in the Earth’s equatorial region.



During El Niño, trade winds weaken. Warm water is pushed back east, toward the west coast of the Americas.

La Niña has the opposite effect of El Niño. During La Niña events, trade winds are even stronger than usual, pushing more warm water toward Asia. Off the west coast of the Americas, upwelling increases, bringing cold, nutrient-rich water to the surface.


Hurricanes and typhoons are the same weather phenomenon: tropical热带 cyclones气旋. A tropical cyclone is a generic term used by meteorologists to describe a rotating, organized system of clouds and thunderstorms that originates over tropical or subtropical waters and has closed, low-level circulation.

A tropical cyclone is a rapidly rotating storm system with a low-pressure center, a closed low-level atmospheric circulation, strong winds, and a spiral arrangement of thunderstorms that produce heavy rain and squalls.


A tornado is a violently rotating column of air that is in contact with both the surface of the Earth and a cumulonimbus cloud or, in rare cases, the base of a cumulus cloud.

It is often referred to as a twister, whirlwind or cyclone, although the word cyclone is used in meteorology to name a weather system with a low-pressure area in the center around which, from an observer looking down toward the surface of the Earth, winds blow counterclockwise in the Northern Hemisphere and clockwise in the Southern.

海啸 tsunami

A tsunami is a series of waves in a water body caused by the displacement of a large volume of water, generally in an ocean or a large lake.

沙尘暴 sandstorm

a strong wind in a desert carrying a large amount of sand

酸雨 acid rain

Acid rain, or acid deposition, is a broad term that includes any form of precipitation with acidic components, such as sulfuric or nitric acid that fall to the ground from the atmosphere in wet or dry forms.

Acid rain is caused by emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide, which react with the water molecules in the atmosphere to produce acids.


  • Burning of fossil fuels to generate electricity. Two thirds of SO2 and one fourth of NOX in the atmosphere come from electric power generators.
  • Vehicles and heavy equipment.
  • Manufacturing, oil refineries and other industries.


Hail consists of small balls of ice that fall like rain from the sky.



A rainbow is an optical phenomenon caused by refraction(折射), internal reflection and dispersion of light in water droplets resulting in a continuous spectrum of light appearing in the sky. 彩虹是一种光学现象,由光在水滴中的折射、内反射和色散引起,导致天空中出现连续的光谱。

水圈 hydrosphere

The hydrosphere is the sum of Earth’s water, in the ocean, the ground, on the surface, and in the air. Approximately 71 percent of Earth’s surface is covered in water. Of all of that water, only about three percent is freshwater. An even smaller amount can be used as drinking water.

生物圈 Biosphere

The biosphere is made up of the parts of Earth where life exists—all ecosystems. The biosphere extends from the deepest root systems of trees, to the dark environments of ocean trenches, to lush(郁郁葱葱) rain forests, high mountaintops, and transition zones like this one, where ocean and terrestrial ecosystems meet.


  • magnetosphere 磁圈
  • solar wind 太阳风

So they, like other types of electromagnetic wave, can travel basiclly anywhere – through a vacuum or through atmosphere or water.


  • atomsphere 大气
  • Sphere 球体
  • crust 地壳(甲壳类)
  • mantle 地幔
  • inner core
  • outer core
  • section


  • North pole/Arctic 北极(天堂)
  • South pole/antartic 南极
  • tropic of Cancer 北回归线(巨蟹座)
  • tropic of Capricon 南回归线(摩羯座)
  • equator 赤道
  • latitude 纬度(赤道0度,北极90度)
  • longitude 经度(英国0度)
  • altitude 高度
  • lateral 横向的(la- 横向)
  • accretion: increase
  • crater 陨石坑,坑


  • vent 火山口(活火山🌋)
  • crater 火山口(不喷发,死火山)
  • lava 熔岩(喷出来)
  • magma 熔岩(内部)
  • ash 火山灰
  • chamber 内腔,心房,室

What is an ecosystem?

An ecosystem is a natural environment that includes the plants and animals that live and interact within that environment.


  • Middle East(Western Asia: Syria, Iraq, Iran, Islam)
  • Asia(China, Russia, India, Japan, Korea, etc)
  • Europe(Ancient Greece, Ancient Roman, Latin, Christianity)
  • Africa(Egypt, Deserts)
  • US & Canada
  • Latin America
  • Australia


The Challenge of Natural Hazards

  • the Tropic of Cancer:北回归线
  • atmospheric hazards 大气危害
  • hurricanes 飓风
  • cyclones 旋风
  • typhoons 台风
  • Earthquakes
  • Climate Change
  • Air pollution

Natural Causes:

  • Orbital changes
  • Solar activity
  • Volcanic activity

Human Causes:

  • Greenhouse effect
  • Carbon Dioxide
  • Nitrous Oxide
  • Methane



  • meanders 盘旋
  • impermeable 不透水的
  • discharge 排放


  • Hemisphere 半球
  • pole 极点
  • polar circle 极圈
  • the arctic 北极
  • the antarctic 南极
  • desert 沙漠
  • mountain range 山脉
  • summit 顶点
  • peak 山峰
  • ridge 山脊
  • vegetation 植被
  • rainforest 热带雨林
  • swamp 沼泽
  • lagoon 泻湖
  • plateau 高原
  • plain 平原
  • highland 高低
  • basin 盆地
  • valley 山谷
  • village 小山村
  • gorge 峡谷
  • canyon 峡谷

A canyon is a deep vally with steep sides, think of the grand canyon most famously to visualize what this is. 峡谷是一个侧面陡峭的深谷,想想最著名的大峡谷来想象这是什么。美国大峡谷

A gorge(峡) is a deep ravine, which usually has a river running throught it - though this doesn’t have to be the case. 峡谷是一个深谷,通常有一条河流穿过它 - 尽管情况不一定如此。三峡

A valley is any depression, usually of a certain length, in the surface of the land and often contains a river.


  • volcano 火山
  • fault 断层
  • plate boundary 板块边缘
  • hot spot theory 热点学说
  • active volcano 活火山
  • dormant volcano 休眠火山
  • extinct volcano 死火山
  • lava 岩浆(流出来外面的)
  • magma 岩浆(未喷出)


  • EL Nino 厄尔尼诺(太平洋中部和东部异常的长时间暖水流几个月,正常情况太平洋东部表面是冷水,并富含营养。)

  • La Nina 拉尼娜(冷水)

  • drought 旱灾

  • rainstorm 暴雨

  • flood 洪水

  • debris flow 泥石流


  • glaciers 冰川
  • snow and ice 冰雪
  • Neve/firn 粒状冰
  • Ozone 臭氧(阻挡紫外线)
  • Ozone layer
  • violet 紫罗兰
  • Ultraviolet radiation 紫外线辐射

湿地 wetlands


  • micro climate
  • species diversity
  • water supply
  • flood 洪水

Bodies of water release heat and moisture back into the environment. So places near large bodies of water are generally milder


河狸(beaver)有“自然界水坝工程师”之称。主要分布在美洲北部,至于欧洲和亚洲的分布则非常少。它们能够使用树枝、灌木、石头、泥土等材料建造水坝和用于居住的小木屋。它们所创造的湿地为其它生物提供了理想的居住环境,因此河狸被视为生态系统中的一个关键种(keystone specieces)

关键种或关键物种是指对环境的影响与其生物量不成比例的物种。这些物种对保持生态群落的结构起着重要的作用,它们影响着生态系统中其他许多生物,并决定了群落中各种物种的种类与数量。 关键种在生态系统中的作用类似于拱顶石在拱形建筑中的作用。虽然在拱形建筑中拱心石受到的压力最小,但失去拱心石的话拱形建筑也就不复存在了。


  • meteorology 气象学
  • moisture 水分
  • vapor
  • moist 潮湿的
  • drought 干旱
  • hurricane 飓风
  • typhoon 台风
  • tornado 龙卷风
  • breeze 微风
  • current 流
  • rip 撕裂
  • blizzard 暴风雪
  • tempest 暴风雨
  • drizzle 下毛毛于
  • frost 霜
  • vapor 蒸汽
  • frigid 寒冷的
  • chill 寒冷
  • monsoon 季风

  • Snowflake 雪花
  • vapor 水汽
  • condense 凝结
  • condensation 冷凝
  • Hexagon 六边形
  • Hexagonal 六角形的

Meteorology 气象学

  • According to the lecture, what creates areas of high pressure and low pressure in the atmosphere? Differences in temperature at different places on Earth
  • According to the professor, what are two reasons why all areas of Earth are not heated equally during daylight hours? Some regions of Earth receive more energy from the Sun than others; The Sun heats land faster than it heats water
  • What are two benefits of wind mentioned by the professor?(Click on 2 answers.) A. It transfers water across Earth B. It shifts heat from some areas of Earth to others
  • What does the professor imply about the heat stored in water vapor? The heat was drawn from the ocean during the evaporation process

The wind! So wind is a critical element in the redistribution of both the Sun’s energy and Earth’s water.


When air in a particular area is heated, you get a concentration of warm air in an area of low pressure.


Likewise, when you get a concentration of cold air, that air’s gonna be very dense, so it’s gonna create an area of high pressure.


If you have an area of high pressure next to an area of low pressure, the colder, high pressure air will start moving toward the area of low pressure. Right?


The key is that the Sun warms up different parts of Earth at different rates and to different degrees.


For example, at sunrise, the land heats up faster than the ocean.


That’s why you get morning sea breezes.


Migration Patterns

El Niño(太平洋东部异常暖水流)

厄尔尼诺现象(西班牙語:El Niño,直译:“男孩”)是指东太平洋海水每隔数年就会异常升温的现象,它与中太平洋和东太平洋(约在国际日期变更线及西经120度)赤道位置产生的暖流有关(包括南美洲太平洋沿岸地区)。


In an El Niño, warm surface currents replace the Humboldt Current for many months, raising ocean temperatures far from the coast.

El Niños are preceded by the reversal of the usual east-to-west pressure gradient in the Pacific, the weakening or reversal of the trade winds, and the movement of warm water eastward.

Comparisons of historical records with recent past events show that El Niños are becoming more frequent and stronger.