English Reading

English Reading

主要问题

  • 词汇量不够
  • 语法太弱,长难句(主句+从句)
  • 阅读量不够
  • 时间不够
  • 文章结构,写法

中文和英文的区别

中文重点在后面,前面是铺垫。英文先说重点。

长修饰。

中文意合(Parataxis),英文形合(Hypotaxis)。

主(修饰)谓宾(修饰)

名词短语的“左二右六”原则

名词短语的构造

  • 中文:名词在最后,修饰在左边(head-last language)
  • 英文:重点名词在前面,修饰在右边(head-first language)

限定词+形容词+中心名词(headword)+介词短语,分词短语,不定式,形容词短语,定语从句,同位语从句

定语从句,修饰某个名词。

The boy is my brother. The (cute) boy is my brother.

The cute boy (in blue jeans) is my brother.(介词短语作后置定语)

The cute boy (wearing nothing) is my brother.(分词短语作后置定语)

The cute boy (to do what he likes) is my brother.(不定式作后置定语)

The cute boy (smart enouth) is my brother.(形容词短语)

The cute boy (who can speak perfect English) is my brother.(定语从句)

The suspicion (that the cute boy is his brother) is his brother. (同位语)

语法书三大流派

  • 大陆派(薄冰,张道真):详单list,What,有什么,看完不会用
  • 港澳台:讲Why
  • 英美:practice makes perfect(Learning by doing.)

词法和句法

英文 = 词法 + 句法(主句+从句)

  • 词法:名动形副数,冠代介连感

  • 句法:简单并列与复杂,倒装,形式主语,非谓语

  • 词法:充当什么角色

  • 句法:陈述,疑问,祈使句,感叹句

  • 简单句:五大基本句型

  • 并列句

  • 复杂句:名词性从句,形容词性从句,副词性从句,非谓语动词

五大基本句型(SVO)

Subject+Verb+(Object)

英文中五类动词。

  1. 主谓结构。 完全不及物动词(What is the definition of ABC):不需要接宾语 The sun rises.
  2. 系动词。 不完全不及物动词。 My teacher is a nice body. Yes, he is
  3. 完全及物动词 I love you.
  4. 动词接两个宾语 I send a email to you.
  5. 不完全及物动词 主+谓+宾+宾补

并列句

简单句 + 并列连词 + 简单句

并列连词:

并列:and, both…and, as well as, not only… but also, neither…nor…

转折:but, however, while, still, yet

选择:or, either…or…,not…but…, or else

因果:for, so, so that, therefore, because

时间:when/then

名词性从句(主,宾,表,同)

从句充当名词。在一个句子中充当名词成分的句子被称为名词性从句

当一个单词解释不清楚一个概念,就用一个句子来表达。

主语从句:
His job is important.
What he does is important.

表语从句:
This is his job.
This is what he does every day.

宾语从句:
I don’t like his job.
I don’t like what he does every day.

同位语从句:
I don’t know about the man, Mr. white.
I don’t know about the fact that he is a teacher.(that 不充当成份)

三种句子,充当四种成份。

  1. 陈述句
  2. 一般疑问句
  3. 特殊疑问句

That + 陈述句:

  • English is important. -> That English is import is an undoubted fact.
  • English is important. -> I’ve learned that English is import.
  • English is important. -> My idea is that English is import.
  • English is important. -> The fact that English is important is correct.

一般疑问句,如果变成:
用whether或if引导
用if还是whether?

if 一般只用于引导宾语从句,而 whether 可引导包括宾语从句在哪的其他名词性从句。

Will he come to my party.

  • Whether he will come to my party makes no difference to me.
  • I don’t know Whether he will come to my party.
  • My question is Whether he will come to my party.
  • We have argued over the question Whether he will come to my party.

特殊疑问句

Why did dinosaurs become extinct?

  • Why dinosaurs became extinct is still a mystery.
  • I don’t know why dinosaurs became extinct.
  • That is why dinosaurs became extinct.
  • We got the question why dinosaurs became extinct.

虚拟

假的+倒退

虚拟的时间 if从句 主句
Past Had done/had been would have done
Present did/were would do
Future were to do/ should do would do

过去的虚拟:

If I had had time yesterday, I would have called him.(I didn’t call him)

现在的虚拟:

If I had time, I would call you.
If I were you, I would marry Stone.

将来的虚拟:

If were to have time tomorrow, I would call you. If should have time, I would call you.

形容词性从句=定语从句(修饰名词,先行词+关系词)

形容词修饰名词。用一句话来替代这个形容词,就叫定语从句。

I like boys who can speak fluent English.

I like guys who have a good sense of humour.

I’d really like to find a friend who I can trust completely.

关系代词:who, whom, which, that, whose
关系副词:when,where, why

Yesterday was a special day when Frank and river got married.

River was watching blue movies when Stone came into the classroom.

I know a friend. His brother is a pop singer. I know a friend whose brother is pop singer.

和 which 搭配的先行词有三种

单词
Anger is a wind which blows out the lamp of the wind.

短语
He likes climbing mountains, which is a good exercise.

句子:
Tom was late, which surprised me.

that 人物都可以

关系副词:

I will never forget the day when I met you.

This is the town where I spent my childhood.

This is the reason why I didn’t come here.

限定与不限定定语从句

限定性不用逗号。非限定性,逗号后面的部分是补充说明的信息。

He is a man who ….(限定性)

He is a good man, who …(非限定)

副词性从句(状语从句,9类)

句子和句子之间的关系。一个句子充当另一个句子的状语成份。

时间(when)

  • He left when I got there.
  • He left when I had got there.
  • The doorbell rang when I was telephoning.
  • I was telephoning when the doorbell rang.
  • I’ll speak to him when he arrives.

While

The doorbell rang while we were watching TV.

地点

原因

目的

结果

条件

让步

比较

方式

非谓语动词

to do/doing 相当于动词的名词形式。

-ed 相当于形容词

to be/to do/being/doing/-ed

现在分词/过去分词/不定式

不定式,除了不可做谓语之外,都可以做。

To learn English is significant.

It is significant to learn English well.

Stone is the best man to marry.

Allow me to say three words to you.

it 做形式主语

倒装