Common expressions in English writing

Words and Phrases

  • observe 观察,看
  • glory: 光荣;以…自豪;praise and thanks, especially as given to God: praise and thanks 赞美和感谢;
  • onset: the beginning of something, especially something unpleasant.
  • propitiate: win or regain the favour of (a god, spirit, or person) by doing something that pleases them.

portmanteau 混合词

flourish FLOURISH meaning: 1 : to grow well to be healthy; 2 : to be very successful to do very well

flourish: to thrive or be successful.


Help do sb.

Corals help protect young fish as they grow.

Help sb. (to)do
He helped me move to London. He helps him (to) learn Russian.

I am writing to thank you for helping us find the right hotel for our holiday. or I am writing to thank you for helping us to find the right hotel for our holiday.

Jack is helping me to tidy my CDs. or Jack is helping me tidy my CDs.

gist 主旨

  • Gist-Content 内容主旨
  • Gist-Purpose 目的主旨

Common Concepts

ethics 伦理 道德
beliefs about what is right and wrong.

moral 道德: right, just, or good.

virtue 美德

justice: administration of law. 正义,公道

wisdom 智慧

courage 勇气

temperance 节制

我认为 think/deem

I think/believe/In my opinion/reckon/ hold the opinion that

只要 as long as / so long as /provided/providing

You can use my car so long as(as long as) you drive carefully.

Provided that she studies hard, she’ll pass her exams.
Providing that she studies hard, she’ll pass her exams.

compare and contrast 对比

  • compare: finding the similarities and differences
  • contrast: finding the differences only

Our new flat is very big compared with/to our old one.

If you compare this one with the others, I’m sure you’ll see a difference.

good 好👌

  • marvellous: extremely good
  • fantastic, amazing, wonderful
  • awesome 惊人的,太棒了
  • great / wonderful 棒极了的,极好的
  • excellent 棒极了的,极好的
  • fantastic 棒极了的,极好的
  • brilliant 棒极了的,极好的(Mark’s come up with a brilliant new idea.)
  • fabulous 棒极了的,极好的
  • superb 棒极了的,极好的
  • superior 更高的,更好的
  • terrific 棒极了的,极好的
  • meaningful 有意义的
  • educational 有教育意义的
  • marvelous 惊人,优秀,不简单,不平凡,causing great wonder, extremely good or pleasing; splendid.
  • glorious 值得称道的;辉煌的;荣耀的;壮丽的;光辉灿烂的;光荣的;热的;极其令人愉快的;极为宜人的
  • startling 惊人的,不寻常的;极鲜亮的


  • advantage
  • benefit


  • good person
  • kind person


  • downsides
  • disadvantages
  • drawbacks
  • problems


  • villain
  • baddie
  • hellion
  • evil person
  • scoundrel
  • rascal
  • evildoer
  • miscreant
  • wrongdoer
  • reprobate
  • malefactor

bad 坏/不好👎

  • terrible
  • wrong
  • unacceptable
  • poor
  • inferior
  • second-class
  • awful
  • dreadful
  • nasty
  • unpleasant
  • substandard
  • unstatisfactory
  • deficient: 缺乏的
  • disastrous: 惨重
  • outrageous: shockingly bad

very 非常

  • vitally
  • fully
  • terribly 非常,极度地
  • extremely 极端地
  • surprisingly 令人惊讶地
  • pretty 非常
  • greatly 很,大大地,非常
  • highly 高度地,非常
  • badly 非常,很,严重地
  • quite 很,相当,完全
  • simply 简直
  • perfectly 完全地
  • totally 完全地,完全
  • resounding 高亢,轰动的, a resounding 4-0 victory

对…有利 有利于

  • be good for 对…有好处对
  • A be good for 对…有好处对 people in terms of B.
  • offering them a better …
  • conducive to
  • Conducive means tending to cause or produce something.
  • Conducive 有助的,有益的

对…有害 破坏 损害

  • damage
  • destruct
  • impair
  • pernicious
  • harm: harmful;
  • devastating: very harmful; damaging; devastating floods.
  • break
  • undermine
  • wreck
  • be bad for
  • demolish: v. pull or knock down (a building).
  • obliterate: completely destroy
  • detrimental 有害的,不利的 harmful, bad

45 Synonyms & Antonyms for BE-BAD

big 大

  • enormous 庞大的,巨大的
  • tremendous 巨大的,惊人的
  • gigantic 庞大的,不可思议的
  • vast 广阔的,巨大的
  • boundless 无限的,无边无际的
  • a considerable achievement 相当大的成就
  • giant / massive / gigantic :very big
  • ginormous
  • prodigious 巨大的

small 小

  • little 几乎没有,否定
  • tiny
  • mini
  • micro-
  • nano-
  • minute 细腻
  • slight
  • minor
  • trivial 琐碎的
  • negligible 微不足道
  • dainty 纤巧
  • thin 细

many 很多/大量的

  • substantial
  • abundant 丰富的
  • copious 丰富的,富饶的
  • so many
  • so much
  • a great number of …
  • a large number of …
  • a large amount of …
  • teeming with: containing a large number of
  • men outnumbered women in college
  • sizable 相当大的
  • considerable 大量,重要,相当大的,重大的; considerable amount of money

few/not many 少

  • few
  • short
  • lean
  • scarce
  • lack
  • lose
  • less
  • thin
  • slim
  • rare
  • insufficient
  • infrequent
  • occasional

rise by 上升 增加

  • rocket
  • soar
  • surge
  • up
  • increase
  • ascend
  • rise of
  • growth

fall by 下降

  • down
  • plunge(dive into water) 暴降 打降
  • decrease
  • descend
  • spiked(长钉): increased and decreased suddenly
  • decline
  • shrink 收缩
  • diminish: to become smaller or less important.
  • subside 平息,塌陷,平复,减少

harness 利用

control and make use of

harness the power of …

utilize the …

大约/大概 about/roughtly/approximately

  • about
  • approximately
  • roughly
  • more or less
  • coarse 粗,大,粗糙,粗俗,无礼

proximate: 最接近的

even 甚至,平均,偶数

Tina loves watching televison. She has a TV set in every room of the house - even the bathroom.

in case 以防万一

He wears two watches in case one of them stops.

We will buy some more food in case Tom comes.

I’ll give you my phone number in case you need to contact me.


  • deplete

v./n. 同意

drew on 借鉴了

The Founding Fathers of the United States drew on this model to create their own form of government.

important 重要的

vital/ crucial/ important/ of great importance/ key A is crucial to B A对B很重要
Other factors are still significant to be considered.
Is it more important to study math or science than it is to study art or literature?
is indispensable for a person 比不可少的

key: very important

I think ongoing training and skill development are very important and indispensable(必不可少).

prominent: important or standing out. 突出的,重要的

staple: 主要的,根本的,订书针

paramount 最重要的, the most important

It is important / essential (for sb.) to do / that …
Tim said that these three things are important in choosing a tree for your garden:

a momentous task 一项艰巨的任务

supreme 至高无上的

foremost 最重要的

exalted 重要的,顯赫的(地位)
She rose to the exalted post of Foreign Secretary.

be central to = be important to

  • significant 重要的
  • essential 基本的,必要的
  • crucial 重要的,决定性的
  • critical 决定性的
  • indispensible 绝对必要的,必不可少的
  • decisive 决定性的
  • dominant 支配的
  • predominant 主要的
  • determinant 决定性的
  • be the be-all and end-all(be the most important thing)
  • cardinal 最主要的,基本的

大部分 most of

  • the bulk of 大部分, most of, the majority of
  • the majority of
  • most of
  • bulk
  • mainly
  • predominantly

I do the bulk of my shopping online.
The bulk of the workers decided to strike.


In more formal English, we can use in order to or so as to to express purpose:

  • The government has raised taxes in order to fund the NHS.
  • People have taken to the streets so as to protest against the increase in taxes
  • for the sake of 为了

We can add ’not’ to make these negative - so as not to and in order not to:

  • He paid the fine in order not to go to prison.
  • I’ve worked really hard all my life so as not to be poor.

His aim is to trun an animal into a complete human being.

开始 start

  • begin
  • kick off(football)

结束 end

  • finish
  • wrap up

happy 高兴/开心

  • happy
  • overjoyed
  • on cloud nine
  • cheerful
  • joyful
  • contended
  • delighted

聪明的 clever

  • clever
  • smart
  • talented
  • witty
  • wise
  • intelligent
  • bright


A very scary story. 一个非常可怕的故事。

  • scary
  • frightening
  • afraid
  • fearful
  • dreadful
  • horrible
  • dreading

惊奇 Surprise

  • staggering adj. very shocking and surprising
  • amaze v. 惊奇
  • astonish v. 震惊

漂亮 beautiful

  • attractive 吸引人的,迷人的
  • appealing 吸引人的,迷人的
  • fascinating 吸引人的,迷人的
  • eye-catching 吸引人的
  • gorgeous 极好的,华丽的

surprising 惊奇 奇怪

  • amazing 令人惊异的
  • extraordinary 特别的,非凡的
  • miraculous 不可思议的
  • bizarre 古怪的 奇形怪状的

鼓励 encourage

encourage someone in something: They’ve always encouraged me in everything I’ve wanted to do.

Our parents always encouraged us to ask questions.

The council is encouraging the development of the property for both employment and recreation.

The new teaching methods encourage children to think for themselves.

We encourage the victims to talk freely about their experiences.

I encouraged my mother to try the new technologies.

提高 advance

  • advance : to move forward : proceed. an advancing army. 2. : to make progress : increase. advance in age.
  • improve 提高
  • enhance 增强,提高,改善
  • increase 增加
  • development; improvement
  • facelift 翻新(整容拉紧面部)
  • boost 使增长,推动;<美,非正式>偷窃;宣扬,推广
  • promote 促进,提倡;升职,晋升;促销,推广;

provide 提供

provide learning opportunities.


花费 spend … on sth. / doing sth. …


For example / for instance / such as

Renewable resources, such as water and sunlight, are abundant.

包括/包含(be cpmposed of/consists of/ made up of …)

Including 包括
There are six noble gasses in the periodic table, including helium, argon, and neon.

  • consists of … 由…组成
  • be composed of … 由…组成

be composed of … 由 … 组成 ABC is composed of A, B and C; Air is composed mainly of nitrogen and oxygen.

ABC consists of A, B, and C. Breakfast consisted of cereal, fruit, and orange juice.

My nuclear family consists of my mom, my dad, and my two brother.

Much of the intergalactic medium is made up of hydrogen and helium.


in consequence

转折 However

However 然而
The data is consistent; however, there are some outliers.

Yet 然而
The task was simple, yet many failed to complete it correctly.

While the northern region is arid, the southern part is lush and green.

Whereas 然而
Dolphins are mammals, whereas fish are not.

Nevertheless 然而
The journey was challenging. Nevertheless, it was rewarding.


Notably 特別是
The country made several advancements, notably in the field of biotechnology.

Especially 特別是
The strategy worked everywhere, especially in urban areas.

In particular 尤其是
ome students need additional support–in particular, those with learning disabilities.


  • underrated
  • underestimated




Second, Besides, Furthermore, In addition, additionally, what’s more, also, more importantly
Finally, Last but not the least, Lastly, in conclusion, to sum up, in summary, Ultimately, Overall


  1. 表起始的过渡语: first of all, to begin with, in my opinion, according to, so far, as far as等.
  2. 表时间的过渡语: first, at first, then, later, in the end, finally, afterwards, after that, since then, for the first time, at last, as soon as, the next moment, meanwhile, later on, soon, finally等.
  3. 表空间的过渡语: on the right / left, to the right / left of, on one side of… on the other side of…, at the foot / top / end of, in the middle / centre of, next to, far from, in front of等.
  4. 表因果的过渡语: for, because of, one reason is that… another reason is that…, thus, so, as a result (of)等.
  5. 表转折的过渡语: albeit(虽然即使), but, yet, however, after all, in fact, while, on the contrary, instead of, unlike, although, otherwise, nevertheless, in spite of, after all等.
  6. 表列举的过渡语: for example, such as, that is, like, as follows, in other words, and so on等.
  7. 表推进的过渡语: what’s more, on one hand…on the other hand…, in addition to, as well, still, also, in other words, not only…but also…, besides, furthermore, moreover等.
  8. 表总结的过渡语: in short, in a word, in general, in brief, in all, on the whole等


  • brave
  • boldly 大胆的
  • daringly 勇敢的


  • make their life easier.
  • enhance their interaction
  • improve their social skills


depend on


devote to

  • devote something to someone or something:将某物献给某人或某事
  • devote oneself to something:将自己献身于某事

: to decide that (something) will be used for (a special purpose) : to use (time, money, energy, attention, etc.) for (something)

She dedicated/devoted all her life to the welfare of women and children.

devote 还可以用于表示“把“时间、精力、金钱等)花在……上面”,其结构是:

devote ……to(doing)sth., 相当于spend 的用法,但spend的结构是:spend …… on sh. 或 spend …… (in) doing sh. 。

He devoted much of his time and effort to the improvement of the device.

喜欢/热爱 like/love

  • care for
  • be fond of
  • be crazy about
  • be mad about
  • be keen on
  • be addicted to
  • be hooked on
  • have a passion for
  • have a great enthusiasm for

I am very keen on Italian food. (I like Italian food very much)


have something to do with…和…有点关系
have nothing to do with…和…毫无关系 be aware of…意识到… on the basis of… 根据…,在…的基础上 in essence本质上 be equal to…等于… be composed of…由…组成 satisfy/meet the needs/requirements of; meet sb’s demand for private businesses


adj. 迟,晚
adv. 晚

adv. 进来,最近


“Infants and young children may face the greatest risks, as their developing brains and bodies are often more vulnerable to impacts from toxic exposures.” said Houlihan in an email.


  1. It’s adj. for sb to do 做…对某人来说…

  2. … so / such … that … 如此… 以至于…
    … too … to do… 太… 而不能…

  3. not…until… 直到…才…
    例: I didn’t go to bed until my mother came back.

  4. The reason why + 句子 is that + 句子 … 的原因是…
    例: The reason why he got angry was that she told him a lie. 他生气的原因是她对他说了谎。

  5. That is why + 句子 那是…的原因

  6. That is because + 句子 那是因为…

  7. It is said that + 句子 据说…
    It is reported that + 句子 据报道…

  8. There is no doubt that + 句子 毫无疑问…

  9. It goes without saying that + 句子 不言而喻,毫无疑问

  10. There is no need to do 没必要做…

  11. There is no point in doing 做某事毫无意义

  12. Since + S + 过去式, S + 现在完成式.
    例: Since he went to senior high school, he has worked very hard.


  • caused by …
  • because of …
  • due to the fact that …
  • in order to / so as to …


had better (not) do 最好(不)做

how about / what about doing …怎么样?

I think you should do 我认为你应该…

I suggest that you should do 我建议你做…

If I were you, I would do… 我要是你的话,我会做…

It’s best to do 最好做…

Why not do / why don’t you do…? 为什么不…

麻烦问题困难 problems

  • difficulty
  • trouble
  • rub
  • issue
  • hardness
  • inconvenience

overcome difficulties
solve problems
overcomes final hurdle
get over the trouble 克服麻烦 get round the trouble 避开麻烦

obstacle 障碍

  • barrier
  • hurdle
  • bar
  • block
  • stumbling block
  • impediment

Overcame the final hurdle 克服了最后的障碍


like / love doing

enjoy doing

be fond of doing 喜欢做…

be keen on /doing 喜欢做…

prefer to do A rather than do B宁愿做A也不愿做B

be interested in doing = show / take great interest in / doing 对…感兴趣

interesting intriguing 吸引人的



try to do 努力做…

strive to do 努力做…

try one’s best to do= do one’s best to do 竭尽全力做…

make efforts to do = make every effort to do 尽力做…

do what sb can (do ) to do 尽力做…

spare no effort to do 不遗余力的做…

do what / everything sb. can to do 尽某人全力做…

打算做… / 计划做…

intend / plan to do 打算做…

be going to do 打算 / 计划做…

decide to do 决定做…

determine to do 决定做…

be determined to do 决定做…

make up one’s mind to do 下定决心做…

表示想 / 希望

want to do = would like to do 想做…

hope to do 希望做…

expect to do 期待着做…

wish to do 希望做…

consider doing 考虑做…

只加doing 作宾语的动词

finish / practice / suggest / consider / mind / enjoy doing


  • look forward to doing 盼望做…
  • keep on doing 坚持做…
  • dream of doing 梦想做…
  • can’t help doing 情不自禁地做…
  • keep / stop / prevent sb. from doing 阻止某人做…
  • be busy (in) doing = be busy with + 名词 忙于做…
  • spend time / money (in) doing=spend time / money on + 名词 花费时间做…
  • have fun / have a good time / enjoy oneself doing 玩得开心
  • have trouble / have problem / have difficulty (in) doing=have trouble / have problem / have difficulty=with + 名词 做…有困难


He seemed to be very worried.

She get bigger. She got bigger. 她变大了。

get 变
get angry

dead 死亡

  • deadly
  • killed
  • gone
  • passed away
  • mortality 死亡,死亡数量
  • death toll 死亡数量

受伤 injured

  • wounded 受伤的
  • harm v. 伤害
  • hurt v.伤害 ajd. 受伤的

担心 worry

  • bothered
  • worried
  • concerned

in terms of … 就…而言

phrase. If you talk about something in terms of something or in particular terms, you are specifying which aspect of it you are discussing or from what point of view you are considering it. Our goods compete in terms of product quality, reliability and above all variety. [ + of]

What does this mean in terms of cost?

The cost in terms of human life was high.

The book is well organized in terms of plot.

Linking devices of cause and effect

Meaning and use

Linking devices are used to link one idea or argument to another. A common situation is when we are talking about something that happens and its result, or a cause and its effect.

  • [CAUSE] The population has increased. [EFFECT] The government is going to build more houses.

Group 1: Therefore, consequently, as a result, thus


These are also called conjunctive adverbs, and they all behave in the same way. This is how we use consequently to join two ideas together. Notice the comma after consequently:

  • The population has increased. Consequently, the government is going to build more houses.

Or we could join the two sentences together using a semi-colon + consequently + comma:

  • The population has increased**; consequently,** the government is going to build more houses.

But you can’t just add consequently without a semi-colon or comma. This is wrong:

  • The population has increased consequently the government is going to build more houses.

We can also replace consequently with any of the Group 1 words or phrases: 

  • The population has increased. As a result, the government is going to build more houses.
  • The population has increased**; therefore,** the government is going to build more houses.


Therefore and consequently are used mainly in writing or formal speech. Thus is a little old-fashioned but is sometimes used in academic writing. That’s why is very common in informal speech. In writing, we usually use it at the beginning of a sentence.

  • The traffic was terrible. That’s why I’m late.

Group 2: because of, as a result of, due to, owing to

Noun phrases and participle clauses

With Group 2 linking devices, the cause part is not a whole sentence or clause, it’s a noun phrase (a phrase that behaves like a noun) or participle clause (a short phrase that begins with a verb, usually in the -ing form):

  • interest rate rises (noun phrase)
  • rising interest rates (participle clause)


Let’s imagine a cause and effect situation: interest rate rises are the cause of price increases. This is one way we could connect them using owing to:

  • The problem has increased owing to interest rate rises.
  • The problem has increased owing to rising interest rates.

In Group 1, the linking device usually comes between the cause and effect parts. Cause is always first, and effect is second.

With Group 2, the the cause can come first or second, and the linking device moves with it. Notice that you need a comma after the linking device if it’s in the first part of the sentence.

  • As a result of interest rate rises, the problem has increased.
  • The problem has increased as a result of interest rate rises.

Take note: The fact that

We can use a group 2 phrase + the fact that + a verb phrase:

  • The problem has increased owing to the fact that interest rates are rising.

Take note: as a result and as a result of

As a result is in Group 1, and as a result of is in Group 2! They look very similar but behave differently.


standard of living has been improved

Well, in my country the unwanted clothes have different uses.


  • make use of


boil down to 归结为

指的是 refers to

it refers to … 它指的是


entitle v 给予(某人)权利,给(某人)资格;给……命名,给……题名

Everyone is entitled to freedom.


In many cases, cosmetic surgery is not a necessity at all, just a choice.


was coined by was invented by

to coin a term/expression/phrase to be the first person to say a word or phrase that then becomes more widely used

William Shakespeare coined many phrases that are now common in English.

相同类似/不同 similar to/ different from

She is similar to her older sister, but very different from her brother.

She is quite unlike her brother.

The have nothing in common.




  • detest


triumph v./n. 胜利
triumphant adj. 胜利的

veil and unveil

unveil = reveal

veil n/v 面纱 罩 unveil 揭开面纱

solve a problem 解决问题

sort out a problem
sort out the situation

味道 taste

  • Bitter - 苦
  • Sour - 酸
  • Sweet - 甜
  • Acidic - 酸性的
  • Salty - 咸
  • Savoury - 鲜美的
  • Buttery - 奶油味的
  • Delectable - 美味的
  • Delicious - 美味的
  • Divine - 神圣的
  • Luscious - 美味的
  • Bittersweet - 苦中带甜的
  • Bland - 清淡的
  • Citrus - 柑橘味的
  • Delicate - 精致的
  • Flavorful - 有风味的
  • Honeyed - 蜜糖味的
  • Spicy - 辣
  • Appetizing - 开胃的
  • Crispy - 酥脆的
  • Earthy - 土味的
  • Fresh - 新鲜的
  • Heavenly - 天堂般的
  • Mouthwatering - 令人垂涎欲滴的

受害者 victim

praise 称赞

to praise

moving 动人的

A moving film.

careful/vigilant 警惕的

  • cautious
  • wary
  • mindful
  • watchful
  • attentive
  • aware

merciless 无情的

边缘 edge

  • marginal
  • fringe
  • brink
  • verge
  • borderline

pressing 紧迫的

Many people believe that the cost of living is the most pressing problem of the day.




miserable 悲惨的

  • gloomy 悲观的;沮丧的;阴暗的;忧郁的;黑暗的;幽暗的;
  • pathetic 可怜的 可悲的
  • sad
  • tragic 悲惨的
  • unhappy
  • wretched 可怜的;悲惨的;


rise/fall by 5% up/down by 5%

The price of gold in London rocketed yesterday in line with the global trend.


weigh v. 承重
weight n. 重量

This problem is really weighing on my mind.

faze/baffle 迷惑/困惑


chronically 长期的

  • long term

take place 举办发生

be looking forward to + noun

I was looking forward to seeing her. 我很期待见到她。

be keen on

liking, interested in, or wanting (to do) something very much

She’s keen on playing tennis.

upset 沮丧的

She really upset him when she told him he was looking old.
It will be an upset if Wales don’t win the match this evening.

cousin 表兄妹

狂怒 furious

hostile 敌对的

David ’takes an instant dislike’ to Uriah Heep - which means that he ‘immediately feels hostility towards something or someone’.

devoted 衷心的

devoted housekeeper. 衷心的管家

outperformed 表现优于

Girls outperformed boys in reading tests. = Girls did better than boys in reading tests.

longed to do

Bill longed to have a bit more excitement in his life, so he signed up for a course in skydiving.

prefer to do

Which mall would you prefer to go to?
I prefer to play basketball.
I prefer swimming than running.
I prefer to have a cup of coffee.

to and for

  • to + do/be
  • for + doing/being/noun

boom 繁荣

  • thriving 兴旺
  • flourished 繁荣
  • prosperity 繁荣,兴旺
  • flourish v. to thrive or be successful.

designated 指定的

  • This is a designated smoking area.
  • designated driver

officially having a particular purpose
Some of the rooms were designated as offices.
Who has she designated (as) her deputy?
In BBC, you are only permitted to smoke in designated areas.

venue 场地

thrill 激动

get through 通过; so grateful to sb

I lost my job and then my wife left me within a month! I’m so grateful to my friends for helping me to get through it.

irritation 刺激 烦恼

go on holida 去度假

I hope I will go on holiday.

deliberately 故意地


Our house is worth £200,000.

be worth it
It was a long climb to the top of the hill, but it was worth it for the view from the top.

be worth something
I think this matter is worth our attention.

be worth having/doing something
There’s nothing worth reading in this newspaper.

by-products 副产品

  • side effects 副作用
  • bylaw 内部管理制度;华为法

tangible 可触摸的,real, touchable

somethin important, real or that you can touch

  • Downloaded music isn’t tangible
  • The company offered tangible benefits

魔鬼 devil

  • evil 邪恶的
  • daredevils: people who like to do dangerous things

expect 期待

The Sun wasn’t expecting the freezing Wind to arrive. 太阳没有预料到风会来。

so to speak

This is used when you’ve used an expression or metaphor, but you want to emphasise that what you said is not meant literally, you’re using it metaphorically. ‘That’s a great idea… they’ll be over the moon, so to speak!’ ‘…and after one good kiss, we fell head over heels in love, so to speak.’

at the end of the day

We use this when you’re about to say the most important thing after you’ve considered everything else…kind of like a summary. ‘Well at the end of the day, it’s only money and Christmas is coming…’ ‘I know dinner was expensive and you don’t have a lot of money at the moment, but you made your family happy and, at the end of the day, that is what’s important.’

confess 坦白 admin

v. 承认,坦白

She was reluctant to confess her ignorance.

She confessed to the murder.

Congestion 拥塞,拥堵(大城市)

Congestion is one of the biggest problems facing cities, and with statistics projecting that close to 70% of the world’s population will live in urban areas by 2050 it is likely to get worse.

  • dirty
  • seedy

legitimate and illegitimate

合法的,allowed by the law.

He’s a legitimate candidate for the job.

controversial 有争议的

something people disagree about

synonyms: questionable, doubtful, debatable, arguable, disputable, moot, hot-button

  • contentious: causing argument or disagreement

argue/quarrel 争吵;辩解,争辩,不同意

  • They argued that … 他们争辩道
  • They contended that … 他们争辩道
  • contend 认为,主张,竞争
  • deem 认为,相信,判决,可以替换think; they were deemed to be illegal immigrants. 他们被认为是非法移民。
  • think 认为
  • in my view/opinion


v. 引用

The pop star cited personal reasons for deciding to cancel his world tour. Naturally, his fans are very upset.

subordinate 从属

  • affiliate n./v. 使附属/从属机构;附属机构;分支机构;分公司;分会

over___ 过于

  • overworked
  • overtired
  • Overboard
  • Overcome
  • Overdue
  • Overjoyed
  • Overwhelm
  • Overcast
  • Overreact
  • Overpower
  • Overhaul
  • Overestimate
  • Overkill
  • Overlook
  • Overthrow
  • Overindulge
  • Overprotective
  • Overgrown
  • Overachiever
  • Overrule
  • Overabundance


have the potential to do sth.

defy 违抗

  • defy v. 违抗,抗拒 to go against the commands, prohibitions, or rules of
  • disobey
  • ignore
  • violate
  • resist
  • oppose
  • rebel(against)

betrayal 背叛

act of not being loyal

  • Marrying his ex-wife’s sister was a betrayal.
  • When the footballer joined the rival team, the fans saw it as an act of betrayal.

Save and Secure

The Difference Between “Safe” and “Secure” More often than not, the words safe and secure can be used interchangeably when they are used as adjectives. However, only safe can be used as a noun and secure can be used as a verb: You can secure a safe, but you can’t safe a secure.


  • fury

irritating 恼火

  • annoying n/v 烦人的
  • irritating n/v 气人的
  • angry 生气
  • boils: gets very angry

resigned 辞职


Bob has resigned.

condensed 浓缩的


Encryption keeps digital messages secret.

prevent (something) from happening

keep (something) at bay

averted 移开的;转移的

stopped something bad from happening

have access to it 可以访问,可得到

have access to sth.

Be likely/unlikely to

The American is likely to win the race tomorrow.
It’s likely to rain on Tuesday.

England are unlikely to win the world cup.
He’s unlikely to pass his exams.

Sarah was unlikely to have known that her boyfriend was a criminal when she met him.
My father was unlikely to have lost his wallet in his own house.

to be aware of

That’s important to be aware of them.

tentative 试探; 试验; 尝试

not certain or definite

looms 逼近 causes worry

  • loom 织布机
  • loomed 若隐若现

The thought of the vaccination injection loomed over me and stopped me from sleeping.

have (got) to

Have got to and have to mean the same.

converse 交谈

talk to someone

cutting edge 领先的,前沿的

confidential 机密的


be accused of sth

Brazilian president, Michel Temer, is accused of corruption.

ground-breaking 开创性的 新的 new

scheduled 预定的

Nasa is due to make a major announcement about its first mission to the sun, which is scheduled for next year.

If something is scheduled, it means it is planned to happen at a particular day or time. But how do we pronounce the word scheduled? Watch the video and find out.

fail 失败

the complete failure of a system

a complete and embarrassing failure

to mess up 搞砸

seductive 诱人的

  • alluring
  • enticing


stubborn 固执的


  • blunder: a mistake often caused by carelessness

backlog 积压

a number of tasks that should have been done by now

You try to clear the backlog, or tackle the backlog.

After the major traffic incident, local hospitals had a huge backlog of patients to deal with. They had been made to wait while the emergency cases were dealt with.

back 支持 support

Banks back(support) rescue package.


  • rousing


when something or someone becomes popular again


游说集团 (Lobbying)

campaign 活动 竞选活动


监视人,监视人们追随法律 organisation responsible for making sure people maintain standards and follow the law


make continue

welfare 福利

outsourcing 外包

paying someone else to do your tasks for you

avoid 避免

  • circumvent
  • bypass


told someone you might do them harm

provoke 挑衅

Stop provoking your little brother.

provocations: actions or speech causing an angry reaction

thought provoking: causing people to think seriously about something.


v./adj. 迟钝的;无聊的;不清晰的;

  • insipid: dull taste
  • vapid: dull people/life
  • prosaic: dull due to lack of imagination

lack of sth.

The protesters criticized the administration’s lack of action on many issues.

advise vs. advice

advice n.
advise v.

The main difference between advice vs advise is that “advise” (with an S) is a verb , which means to recommend, or to give information to someone. On the other hand, “advice” (with a C) is a noun: an opinion or recommendation offered as a guide to action.

embellishing 装点

  • making more attractive
  • lack of attraction

culminated in 达到顶峰

bid 争取/投标/attempt

bid = an effort/ an attempt / a try

New bid(attempt) to go round world in hot air balloon.

hit 打击

to affect badly

Train service badly affected(hit) by storms.

combustion engine 内燃机

microchip 微芯片

chart a course 制定路线

digital realm 数字领域

perils 危险

  • hazards
  • dangerous

praise 赞

hastened 加快了

Invasions hastened the fall of Rome.

fountain 喷泉⛲️

row = argument

sounds prudent 听起来很谨慎

screws 螺丝



distinctive 有特色的

elaborate 复杂的,精致的



intricate 错综复杂的;难理解的,难学会的

grand 雄伟的,富丽堂皇的

instinct 天赋

prevalent 普遍的 盛行的 流行的 common

The birch tree can grow in many different types of soils and it’s prevalent in that area.

  • pervasive 普遍的
  • ubiquitous 无处不在的
  • widespread
  • general
  • common
  • universal
  • omnipresent
  • abound with
  • be teeming with

status 地位身份。状态

Glasses were a status symbol in some parts of the world.

abrupt 突然的 意外的

accumulate 积累,增加,聚集

adept 熟练的

affluene 丰富 富裕

amateur 业余的

billboard 广告牌

intact 完整的 完好无损的

woes 苦难,悲伤

traumatic Highly stressful

deeply disturbing or distressing.

confused 迷惑的

  • baffled: extremely confused
  • perplexed
  • bewildered

antiquity 古代

  • ancient


famous for bad reason.

notorious 臭名昭著

inflammable 易燃的

very easy to catch fire.

prolific 多产的

producting a lot of something

farewell 再见

go well/trvel well

used for some emotional goodbye, important goodbye, old fashion goodbye.

fake 假的 counterfeit

  • verb: To fake a smile. To fake a laugh. To fake being confident.
  • noun: That painting’s a fake. The diamond ring is a fake.
  • adjective: Sam didn’t write a fake review. Be careful of fake concert tickets.

to go viral

to go viral: spread quickly on the internet.

contribute to and attribute to

  • contribute to … 有助于,做出贡献
  • attributed to … 归因于




make hard to bear.

horticulture 园艺


easily replaced, not worth saving

rebuke 训斥

to express disapproval of

ovation 鼓掌



diffusion 扩散

spread. the diffusion of fragrance.

pizzazz 活力四射

dignitary 达官贵人

engrossing 专心

movie is so engrossing


diagnostic tests on patien.


rude, impolite



disengage from work.


to change in form or apperance, convert, change

Overtime, success transfigured her into a egotistical person. 随着时间的推移,成功使她变成了一个自负的人

boarder 寄宿生

meager 微薄(income)

stem from/ come from


A indicating that B

plausible 合理可信的


phenomenon 现象 出现

meaningful and distinctive

being hospitalized 正在住院


  • enduring memories 持久的记忆
  • durable 耐用的,耐久,持久
  • physiological changes 生理变化
  • gist of events 事件要点
  • human character and behavior 人的性格和行为
  • melodies and rhythms 旋律和节奏
  • the vagaries of the wind 风的变幻莫测

complex 复杂的系统的

  • intricate 复杂的
  • comlicated 复杂的
  • system

simple/easy 简单的

  • easy
  • direct
  • straightforward
  • uninvolved
  • clear
  • plain

pertinent 相关的

  • relevant

drawback 缺点

draw 吸引

  • attract 吸引
  • entice 诱惑

portable 便携的 可移动的

guess 推测

  • guess 猜测,猜想
  • speculate 推测
  • gamble 赌博,冒险
  • surmise 推测
  • assume 假设
  • conjecture 推测
  • hypothesize 假设
  • postulate 假定

wonder 想知道,好奇,奇妙的

faithful 忠诚 忠实 exact 精确

  1. remaining loyal and steadfast.
    “throughout his career, he remained faithful to the principles of Classical art”

  2. true to the facts or the original.
    “the film was faithful to the book”

radical 激进的

What made mordern so radical?

approach 接近

exceptionally 意外地 unusually

fume 烟

v./n. 臭气,烟,烟熏

distant 远离的,距离

impetus 推动,促进 impulse


marked 显著的

  • noticeable 显而易见的,显著的;值得注意的
  • pronounced 显著的;断然的;讲出来的
  • obvious 明显的;显著的;平淡无奇的

modulate 调节;调整

  • temper
  • adjust

motto 座右铭,格言

pendant 垂饰,下垂物

radiate v. 发出热量 辐射

remnant 残余物;遗留的痕迹

rod 杆,棒

salon 沙龙;客厅;画廊;美术展览馆

spectator 观众

specimen 范例标本

sturdy 强壮的,结实的 robust durable

  • steady 牢固的,稳定的

towering 高耸的

catastrophe 大灾难

compel 强迫,迫使;强使发生

  • expel 开除

envelop 包住

  • warp
  • enclose
  • encircle

flint 打火石

grind 打磨

spiral 螺旋的

unadorned 未装饰的,朴素的

vigrous 有力的

unprecedented 空前的

disposal 处置

  • get ride of …

analogy/firgurative 比喻

pessimistic 悲观的,消极的,负面的

  • negative

by no means 绝对不是

hazards and benefits 危险和益处

fuze 引信

relegate 降级/贬谪

relegated to the lower classes.

wrinkled 皱


vibration, or a fluctuation between two values.

spiral 螺线

nonetheless 尽管如此

敌对和欢迎 hostile vs hospitable

  • hostile 敌对的
  • hospitable 好客的,欢迎的


Go to somewhere: go to school, go to park

Go on something: go on a vacation, go on a pilgrimage

expenditure & expense


得到 derive


异常地/罕见/例外 exceptionally/unusually

exceptionally = unusually

enlist 征募

recruit 招聘,招收(新成员);招募(新兵);说服,动员;(通过招募)组成,组建;<旧> 恢复(数量、力气等) enrol or be enrolled in the armed services.
engage (a person or their help or support).

exacerbate 使恶化,使加剧